Stiffness characteristics of longwall shields
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      "The stiffness characteristics of longwall shields were investigated in this Bureau of Mines study. Since longwall strata activity is characterized by roof-to-floor and face-to-waste displacements, a model with two degrees of freedom was used to describe the load- displacement relationship of the shield structure. The model considers the support as an elastic body and relates horizontal and vertical resultant forces acting on the support to associated displacements as a function of the stiffness of the support structure. Stiffness coefficients under full canopy and base contact configurations were determined by controlled displacement loading of longwall shields in the Bureau's mine roof simulator. Three two-legged longwall shields of different manufacture were investigated. The stiffness characteristics of these shields were evaluated relative to two parameters, namely, shield height and setting pressure. The test results indicate a reduction in shield stiffness for increasing height. Setting pressure was found to have less of an effect on shield stiffness, producing only a slight increase in stiffness as setting pressure increased. Similar trends were observed for all three shields, indicating a similarity in stiffness characteristics for shields of the same basic configuration." - NIOSHTIC-2

      NIOSHTIC no. 10005959

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