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Recovery of Critical Metals by Carbonyl Processing
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    The Bureau of Mines investigated carbonyl processing techniques for the recovery of the critical metals Ni, Co, Mn, and Cr from domestic primary and secondary sources. In most cases, the source materials require reductive precarbonylation treatment to metallize the contained Fe, Ni, and Co compounds to render them reactive with CO. The critical metals were recovered either by direct conversion to the respective carbonyls or as upgraded products by carbonyl removal of an undesirable metal. Best metal-to-metal carbonyl conversion was under CO pressure, from 80 atm upward, and at 1400 C. Carbonylation was accelerated by the addition of HzS in small quantities. CO pressure, temperature, promoter and pretreatment trends, and other factors enhancing metal carbonyl formation are presented.

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