Mitigating Destructive Longwall Bumps Through Conventional Gate Entry Design
Description:The U.S. Bureau of Mines evaluated two different conventionallongwall gate entry systems in the Southern Appalachian Basin, where mining and geologic conditions are conducive for coal pillar bumps. These gate entry systems were in a coal mine located in the Pocahontas No.3 Coalbed under approximately 2,000 ft of overburden and a massive quartzite sandstone member, and both employed a center abutment pillar flanked by yield pillars. The 8O-ft-square tailgate abutment pillars within the first study area began bumping 500 ft in advance of mining. This was accompanied by face bumps on the tailgate corner of the longwall face. The 120-by 180-ft tailgate abutment pillars within the second study area did not begin to bump until mining was approximately 100 ft past. Coalbed stress change and abutment pillar dilation data demonstrated that a 15-ft-wide perimeter of yielded coal surrounded a highly stressed core in both sizes of abutment pillars. The 62 pet more core area per foot of gate entry in the larger abutment pillars prevented excessive load transfer to the corner of the tailgate panel and eliminated the face bumps experienced with the original gate entry design.
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