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Laboratory Processing and Characterization of Waste Materials From Manganese Nodules
  • Published Date:
    1/1/1985
Filetype[PDF - 10.87 MB]


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Laboratory Processing and Characterization of Waste Materials From Manganese Nodules
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  • Description:
    This Bureau of Mines report describes the laboratory processing of manganese nodules and the results of tailings characterization obtained during the cooperative program with the Department of Commerce's National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the Bureau. Five technically feasible first-generation nodule processing methods were operated at bench scale to generate sufficient tailings and slags for physical and chemical analyses. A description is given for the laboratory operation of the individual unit operations of each process. The laboratory-generated tailings and slags were tested for physical properties, mineral content, elemental and ion content, and leachability for all five processes. The results of leachate testing using the Environmental Protection Agency extraction procedure (EP) toxicity test, the American Society for Testing and Materials shake extraction test, and the EPA-U.S. Army Corps of Engineers seawater elutriant test showed very low to negligible leaching of metals from the tailings and slags. Results of the EP toxicity test demonstrated that the wastes are nonhazardous as defined in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (Public Law 94-580).

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