Causes and control of coal mine bumps
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      "Coal mine bumps involve the violent, rapid failure of coal and rock around a mine excavation. Deep coal mines with strong roof and floor rocks and high-stress conditions frequently experience face and rib bumps. The bump problem is becoming more severe as mining depth increases, prompting efforts to control high stress in advance of mining. This Bureau of Mines report presents a review of the most widely used methods to detect and destress high-stress zones along coal faces and an investigation of stress-related bump problems and destressing techniques at a cooperating mine. Geotechnical instrumentation and microseismic methods were used to better understand bump occurrences in underground coal mines. Laboratory tests of the drilling-yield method for high-stress detection were conducted to determine the correlation between the volume of cuttings obtained and the magnitude of the applied stress at various confining pressures. A three-dimensional, multiple-seam computer modeling program, mulsim, was used to evalaute the effectiveness of stress-relief methods. Modeling results indicate that dangerously high-stress areas can be controlled by either proper planning or destressing. Proper mine planning guidelines and destressing methods such as volley firing, hydraulic fracturing, and auger drilling are discussed." - NIOSHTIC-2 NIOSHTIC no. 10006586
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