Analysis of the Oxidation of Chalcopyrite, Chalcocite, Galena, Pyrrhotite, Marcasite, and Arsenopyrite
Description:Conditions in the underground mine environment can cause self-heating of sulfide ores as a result of exothermic oxidation reactions, which may result in mine fires. This Bureau of Mines report describes thermal analyses of finely ground chalcopyrite, chalcocite, galena, pyrrhotite, marcasite, and arsenopyrite, to characterize their responses under oxidizing conditions. Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) were used, in the temperature range 1000 to 5000 C. Chalcopyrite showed an initial weight gain, due to formation of sul-fates, a weight loss, caused by ignition of iron sulfide to iron oxide, and a final weight gain, indicating the conversion of copper sulfide to sulfate. Chalcocite did not ignite in the temperature range studied but exhibited a rapid weight gain, because of the rapid conversion of copper sulfide to sulfate. Likewise, galena failed to ignite but underwent a steady weight gain when oxidized in a moist atmosphere, showing conver-sion of lead sulfide to sulfate below the ignition point. Marcasite underwent a rapid weight loss, indicating ignition, at 2000 C. Moisture in the oxidizing atmosphere lowered the ignition point of marcasite and arsenopyrite but not that of pyrrhotite. All the sulfides exhibited exothermic behavior at temperatures below the ignition point.
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