A Ball-on-Block Impact-Spalling Wear Test and Results on Several Iron Alloys
Description:An impact wear testing machine was devised by the Bureau of Mines that simulates the repeated impact conditions encountered in large milling and grinding operations where breakage and spalling are problems. The apparatus provides data on materials that may help in the design of alloys with improved resistance to deformation, spalling, and breakage. The test blocks are 2 in thick by 6 in by 8 in. Impacts are produced by dropping 3-in-diam balls weighing 4 lb from a height of 10 ft. Tests were run until breakage occurred or to a total of 100,000 impacts. Four types of failures of the test block were observed: (1) cold flow of the bulk material by plastic deformation, (2) flaking of the surface in the impact region, (3) spalling of the block to form a crater in the region of impact, and (4) breakage of the test block into two or more major pieces. The effects of composition, heat treatment, microstructure, and hardness on types of failure are discussed.
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