Cost-Related Nonadherence and Mortality in Patients With Chronic Disease: A Multiyear Investigation, National Health Interview Survey, 2000–2014
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Cost-Related Nonadherence and Mortality in Patients With Chronic Disease: A Multiyear Investigation, National Health Interview Survey, 2000–2014

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    • Alternative Title:
      Prev Chronic Dis
    • Description:
      Introduction Prescription costs are rising, and many patients with chronic illnesses have difficulty paying for prescriptions. Missing or delaying medication because of financial concerns is common; however, the effects of cost-related nonadherence (CRN) on patient outcomes have not been described. Our objective was to determine if CRN is associated with higher all-cause and disease-specific mortality among patients living with diabetes and cardiovascular disease in a representative sample of US adults. Methods We ascertained CRN, vital status, and cause of death for 39,571 patients with diabetes, 61,968 patients with cardiovascular disease, and 124,899 patients with hypertension in the 2000 through 2014 releases of the National Health Interview Survey. We used adjusted Cox proportional hazards models to estimate associations between CRN and all-cause mortality and CRN and disease-specific mortality. Results On average, 15% of the sample reported CRN in the year before interview. After adjusting for confounders, CRN was associated with 15% to 22% higher all-cause mortality rates for all conditions (diabetes hazard ratio [HR] = 1.18; 95% CI, 1.1–1.3; cardiovascular disease [CVD] HR = 1.15; 95% CI, 1.1–1.2; hypertension HR = 1.22; 95% CI, 1.2–1.3). Relative to no CRN, CRN was associated with 8% to 18% higher disease-specific mortality rates (diabetes HR = 1.18; 95% CI, 1.0–1.4; CVD HR = 1.09; 95% CI, 1.0–1.2; hypertension HR = 1.08; 95% CI, 0.9–1.3). Conclusion Relative to full adherence, CRN is associated with higher mortality rates for patients with diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and hypertension, although associations may have weakened since 2011. Policies that increase prescription affordability may decrease mortality for patients experiencing CRN.
    • Pubmed ID:
      33274701
    • Pubmed Central ID:
      PMC7735485
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