Caffeine intake among children in the United States and 10-year trends: 2001–2010
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Caffeine intake among children in the United States and 10-year trends: 2001–2010

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    • Alternative Title:
      Am J Clin Nutr
    • Description:
      Background: In light of increasing concern of potential adverse effects of caffeine intake in children, recent estimates of caffeine consumption among a representative sample of young children are needed. Objective: To provide estimates of caffeine intake in children, in absolute amount (mg) and in relation to body weight (mg/kg), examine the association of caffeine consumption with socio-demographic factors, and describe trends in caffeine intake among children in the United States. Design: We analyzed caffeine intake among 3280 children aged 2–19 y who participated in a 24-h dietary recall as part of NHANES, a nationally representative sample of the US population with a cross-sectional design, in 2009–2010. The association of caffeine consumption with socio-demographic factors was also determined. Trends over time were examined in 18,530 children aged 2–19 y, between 2001 and 2010. Analyses were conducted for all children, and repeated for caffeine consumers. Results: Seventy one percent of US children consumed caffeine on a given day. Median caffeine intakes (mg) for 2–5, 6–11, and 12–19 y olds were 1.3, 4.5, and 13.6, respectively; and 4.7, 9.1 and 40.6, respectively among children who consumed caffeine. Non-Hispanic black children had lower caffeine intake compared to non-Hispanic white counterparts. Caffeine intake correlated positively with age; this association was independent of body weight. On a given day, 10% and <5% of 12–19 y and 2–11 y olds, respectively consumed more than the maximum guideline of 2.5 mg/kg caffeine by Health Canada. A significant linear trend of decline in caffeine intake was noted (2001 −2010) for all children and among consumers. Specifically, intake decreased by 3.0 and 4.6 mg for 2–5 and 6–11 y old caffeine consumers, respectively. Conclusion: A majority of US children consumed caffeine. Caffeine intake was highest among 12–19 y, and remained stable over the 10-y study period in this age group.
    • Pubmed ID:
      25240076
    • Pubmed Central ID:
      PMC7505205
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