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Notes from the Field: CDC Polio Surge Response to Expanding Outbreaks of Type 2 Circulating Vaccine-Derived Poliovirus — Africa and Philippines, September 2019–March 2020
  • Published Date:
    August 28 2020
  • Source:
    MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 69(34):1182-1183
  • Language:
Filetype[PDF-135.32 KB]

  • Alternative Title:
    MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep
  • Description:
    In April 2016, a resolution by all members of the 68th World Health Assembly* in coordination with the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) resulted in the removal of the Sabin-strain type 2 oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) component from all immunization activities to avert outbreaks of type 2 circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV2). In the first quarter of 2016, house-to-house supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) with trivalent OPV (containing Sabin-strain types 1, 2 and 3) were conducted in 42 at-risk countries† in an effort to close type 2 immunity gaps in countries with chronically weak routine childhood immunization systems. However, the quality of SIAs in some countries was inadequate, and pockets of unimmunized and underimmunized children remained. Sabin-strain monovalent OPV type 2 (mOPV2) was then successfully used in response to many cVDPV2 outbreaks; however, some outbreaks in sub-Saharan Africa were not promptly controlled and spread to other countries. Where mOPV2 SIA quality was low, prolonged Sabin-strain type 2 circulation allowed new cVDPV2 outbreaks to emerge (1). In 2019, 358 cVDPV2 cases were reported, representing a fourfold increase over the 71 cases reported in 2018 and more than tripling the number of countries with outbreaks, from five (2) to 16. As of August 2, a total of 236 cVDPV2 cases in 17 countries have been reported in 2020. Among 33 cVDPV outbreaks reported during July 2018–February 2020, 31 (94%) were caused by cVDPV2 (1).
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