2771. Seroprotection against Measles, Rubella, Tetanus, and Diphtheria Among Children in Haiti—2017
Advanced Search
Select up to three search categories and corresponding keywords using the fields to the right. Refer to the Help section for more detailed instructions.

Search our Collections & Repository

All these words:

For very narrow results

This exact word or phrase:

When looking for a specific result

Any of these words:

Best used for discovery & interchangable words

None of these words:

Recommended to be used in conjunction with other fields



Publication Date Range:


Document Data


Document Type:






Clear All

Query Builder

Query box

Clear All

For additional assistance using the Custom Query please check out our Help Page


2771. Seroprotection against Measles, Rubella, Tetanus, and Diphtheria Among Children in Haiti—2017

Filetype[PDF-1.28 MB]

  • English

  • Details:

    • Alternative Title:
      Open Forum Infect Dis
    • Description:

      Measles, rubella, and maternal and neonatal tetanus have been verified to be eliminated in Haiti, but a diphtheria outbreak has been ongoing since 2014. To evaluate progress toward maintaining vaccine preventable disease (VPD) elimination and control, we conducted the first survey to estimate immunity to these VPDs among children in Haiti.


      We conducted a nationally representative, two-stage cluster survey in 2017, stratifying Haiti into 2 regions: (1) West Region, the highly urban West department that includes one-third of Haiti’s population; (2) Non-West Region (all other departments). We sampled 4,286 households to recruit at least 910 children aged 5–7 years. We obtained vaccination history and dried blood spots from one eligible child per household. Antibody concentrations to VPDs were measured on a multiplex bead assay. We compared seroprotection and vaccination coverage estimates.


      Among 1146 enrolled children, tetanus (83%, 95% CI: 80%–86%) and diphtheria (83%, 95% CI: 81%–85%) seroprotection were higher than coverage with ≥3 doses of tetanus and diphtheria containing vaccine (DTP3) (68%, 95% CI: 61%–74%). No participants had antibody concentrations consistent with long-term immunity to tetanus or diphtheria. Measles (87%, 95% CI: 85%–89%) and rubella (84%, 95% CI: 81%–87%) seroprotection were higher than or similar to coverage with at least one dose of measles-rubella (MR) vaccine (84%, 95% CI: 80%–87%) (Figure 1). MR second-dose coverage was 20% (95% CI: 16%–24%). Seroprotection in the West Region was lower than in the non-West region for all VPDs.


      Discordance between DTP3 coverage and seroprotection might be due to underestimating vaccination coverage by recall. Lack of long-term protection against tetanus or diphtheria is consistent with declining antibody concentrations by school-age after the primary DTP series, indicating the need for a booster dose. Seroprotection against measles and rubella viruses was lower than levels needed to prevent transmission, particularly in the West region; re-introduction of either virus could lead to an epidemic. Haiti should reach ≥95% DTP3 and two-dose MR coverage and add tetanus and diphtheria vaccine booster doses per global recommendations.


      All authors: No reported disclosures.

    • Subjects:
    • Pubmed Central ID:
    • Document Type:
    • Place as Subject:
    • Collection(s):
    • Main Document Checksum:
    • File Type:

    Supporting Files

    More +

    You May Also Like

    Checkout today's featured content at stacks.cdc.gov