Proportionate Mortality Ratios: National Occupational Mortality Surveillance Data; Injuries, Illnesses, And Hazardous Exposures In The Mining Industry,1986-1995: A Surveillance Report
Description:This chapter presents proportionate mortality ratios (PMRs) derived from death certificate data in the National Occupational Mortality Surveillance (NOMS) database for the years 1986 through 1993. At the time this report was prepared, 1993 was the latest year for which data were available. Industry is classified under the 1980 U.S. Bureau of the Census classification system [Bureau of the Census 1982]; cause of death, under the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) [World Health Organization 1977]. A PMR of 100 indicates a mortality risk for a particular industry group that is similar to that for all industry groups combined. A PMR over 100 suggests a higher risk; a PMR under 100 suggests a lower risk. PMRs are subject to many factors that affect their reliability and validity and may not be comparable across populations with very different causes of death. An elevated PMR for a specified cause of death among an occupational or industry group may indicate a relationship between a work exposure and the cause of death specified. However, there are many limitations of PMRs as a measure of risk; they are most useful for generating hypotheses about exposure-disease relationships, which can then be tested in other studies. Selected PMRs are presented separately for males and females for coal mining, metal mining, nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying (which includes nonmetal, stone, and sand and gravel), and for oil and gas extraction. All PMRs have been adjusted for age and race. In general, PMRs are presented only if the lower 95% confidence limit exceeded 100. If a PMR in an ICD-9 subcategory was above 100, however, the PMR for the larger category into which the subcategory falls is always presented and may be less than 100. PMRs can be expected to be elevated for conditions that have a high prevalence in particular occupational groups. PMRs showed elevated values for conditions known to affect miners, such as coal workers' pneumoconiosis, pneumoconiosis due to silica, tuberculosis, chronic pulmonary heart disease, and injuries. Additional findings of interest were- • An elevated PMR for myocardial infarction among male coal miners (table 2-1); • Elevated PMRs for neurologic disease in general and anterior horn cell disease, in particular among male metal miners (table 2-3); • An elevated PMR for rheumatic heart disease in male metal miners (table 2-3); • Elevated PMRs for malignant neoplasms of the digestive organs and peritoneum and for malignant neoplasms of the colon and rectum in female nonmetal miners (table 2-6); and • Elevated PMRs for non-A, non-B hepatitis and arteriosclerotic heart disease among male oil and gas workers (table 2-7).
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