Impact of deltamethrin selection on kdr mutations and insecticide detoxifying enzymes in Aedes aegypti from Mexico
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Impact of deltamethrin selection on kdr mutations and insecticide detoxifying enzymes in Aedes aegypti from Mexico
  • Published Date:

    May 06 2020

  • Source:
    Parasit Vectors. 13
  • Language:
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  • Alternative Title:
    Parasit Vectors
  • Description:
    Background Insecticide resistance is a serious problem for vector control programmes worldwide. Resistance is commonly attributed to mutations at the insecticide’s target site or increased activity of detoxification enzymes. Methods We determined the knockdown concentration (KC50) and lethal concentration (LC50) of deltamethrin in six natural populations of adult Aedes aegypti from southeastern Mexico. These populations were then selected over five generations using the LC50 from the preceding generation that underwent selection, and the heritability of deltamethrin resistance was quantified. For each generation, we also determined the frequency of the kdr alleles L410, I1016 and C1534, and the levels of activity of three enzyme families (α- and β-esterases, mixed-function oxidases and glutathione S-transferases (GST)) associated with insecticide detoxification. Results There was an increase in KC50 and LC50 values in the subsequent generations of selection with deltamethrin (FS5vs FS0). According to the resistance ratios (RRs), we detected increases in LC50 ranging from 1.5 to 5.6 times the values of the parental generation and in KC50 ranging from 1.3–3.8 times the values of the parental generation. Triple homozygous mutant individuals (tri-locus, LL/II/CC) were present in the parental generations and increased in frequency after selection. The frequency of L410 increased from 1.18-fold to 2.63-fold after selection with deltamethrin (FS5vs FS0) in the populations analyzed; for I1016 an increase between 1.19-fold to 2.79-fold was observed, and C1534 was fixed in all populations after deltamethrin selection. Enzymatic activity varied significantly over the generations of selection. However, only α- esterase activity remained elevated in multiple populations after five generations of deltamethrin selection. We observed an increase in the mean activity levels of GSTs in two of the six populations analyzed. Conclusions The high levels of resistance and their association with high frequencies of kdr mutations (V410L, V1016I and F1534C) obtained through artificial selection, suggest an important role of these mutations in conferring resistance to deltamethrin. We highlight the need to implement strategies that involve the monitoring of kdr frequencies in insecticide resistance monitoring and management programmes.
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