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Applicability Of State-Of-The-Art Voice Bandwidth Compression Techniques For Wireless Mine Communication - I. Executive Summary - A. Introduction
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    Since the passage of the Coal Mine Health and Safety Act of 1969, the Bureau of Mines has made many advances in mine communications. These efforts have resulted in the following developments and demonstrations: • Surface-to-surface electromagnetic transmission of baseband voice signals through overburdens as deep as 600 feet. This transmission was achieved with equipment from the Interim Mine Rescue and Survival System Program, and demonstrated that baseband voice communications could be obtained through these overburdens in the absence of mine-generated noise; that is, when the mine power system was shut off. However, during mine operational conditions, the mine-generated noise proved to be so large that effective baseband voice communications to the desired depths could not be effected. • The development of beacon transmitters for locating trapped miners. This work was again the outgrowth of the Interim Mine Rescue and Survival System. Extensions of this work have led to reliable detection and location of trapped miners to depths of 1000 feet. The system, which makes use of a loop antenna deployed where the trapped miner is located, uses low-duty-cycle, tone-burst transmission. Portable tuned receivers and loop antennas are used on the surface to determine the location of the trapped miner. An extension of this work has led to a call-alert paging system concept, wherein a transmitter, similar to that used in the trapped miner system, is used to audibly and/or visually alert key mine personnel carrying pocket receivers that they are wanted at the nearest mine telephone. In addition, a roof-bolt paging system has been developed, wherein commercial paging and mine carrier phone equipment are used in conjunction with a long-wire "roof bolt" antenna to page individuals and relay to them short voice messages. NIOSHTIC no. 10001368
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