The relationship between insecticide resistance, mosquito age and malaria prevalence in Anopheles gambiae s.l. from Guinea
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The relationship between insecticide resistance, mosquito age and malaria prevalence in Anopheles gambiae s.l. from Guinea

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      Sci Rep
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      Insecticide resistance across sub-Saharan Africa may impact the continued effectiveness of malaria vector control. We investigated the association between carbamate and pyrethroid resistance with Anopheles gambiae s.l. parity, Plasmodium falciparum infection, and molecular insecticide resistance mechanisms in Guinea. Pyrethroid resistance was intense, with field populations surviving ten times the insecticidal concentration required to kill susceptible individuals. The L1014F kdr-N1575Y haplotype and I1527T mutation were significantly associated with mosquito survival following permethrin exposure (Prevalence Ratio; PR = 1.92, CI = 1.09-3.37 and PR = 2.80, CI = 1.03-7.64, respectively). Partial restoration of pyrethroid susceptibility following synergist pre-exposure suggests a role for mixed-function oxidases. Carbamate resistance was lower and significantly associated with the G119S Ace-1 mutation. Oocyst rates were 6.8% and 4.2% among resistant and susceptible mosquitoes, respectively; survivors of bendiocarb exposure were significantly more likely to be infected. Pyrethroid resistant mosquitoes had significantly lower parity rates than their susceptible counterparts (PR = 1.15, CI = 1.10-1.21). Our findings emphasize the need for additional studies directly assessing the influence of insecticide resistance on mosquito fitness.
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