Diagnostic dose determination and efficacy of chlorfenapyr and clothianidin insecticides against Anopheles malaria vector populations of western Kenya
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Diagnostic dose determination and efficacy of chlorfenapyr and clothianidin insecticides against Anopheles malaria vector populations of western Kenya

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    • Alternative Title:
      Malar J
    • Description:
      Background Malaria vector control is dependent on chemical insecticides applied to walls by indoor residual spraying or on long-lasting insecticidal nets. The emergence and spread of insecticide resistance in major malaria vectors may compromise malaria control and elimination efforts. The aim of this study was to estimate a diagnostic dose for chlorfenapyr (class: pyrrole) and clothianidin (class: neonicotinoid) and assess the baseline susceptibility of three major Anopheles malaria vectors of western Kenya to these two insecticides. Methods The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) bottle assay was used to determine the diagnostic doses of chlorfenapyr and clothianidin insecticides against the susceptible Kisumu strain of Anopheles gambiae. Probit analysis was used to determine the lethal doses at which 50% (LD50) and 99% (LD99) of the susceptible mosquitoes would be killed 24, 48 and 72 h following exposure for 1 h. Insecticidal efficacy of chlorfenapyr, clothianidin and the pyrethroid deltamethrin was then evaluated against field collected female Anopheles mosquitoes sampled from Nyando, Bumula and Ndhiwa sub-Counties in western Kenya. Members of Anopheles funestus and An. gambiae complexes were identified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results The determined diagnostic doses of chlorfenapyr and clothianidin insecticides were 50 µg/bottle and 150 µg/bottle, respectively, for An. gambiae, Kisumu strain. When exposed to the diagnostic dose of each insecticide, Anopheles malaria vector populations in western Kenya were susceptible to both insecticides with 100% mortality observed after 72 h. Mortality of mosquitoes exposed to deltamethrin increased over time but did not reach 100%. Mortality of Anopheles arabiensis from Nyando exposed to deltamethrin was 83% at 24 h, 88% at 48 h and 94.5% at 72 h while An. funestus from Ndhiwa was 89% at 24 h, 91.5% at 48 h and 94.5% at 72 h. Conclusion Mosquitoes of western Kenya, despite being resistant to pyrethroids, are susceptible to chlorfenapyr and clothianidin. Field evaluations of the formulated product are needed. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (10.1186/s12936-019-2858-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
    • Pubmed ID:
      31315614
    • Pubmed Central ID:
      PMC6637467
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