A Spatial/ Spectral Domain Microwave Coal Seam Imaging Sensor-Progress In Signal Processing
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A Spatial/ Spectral Domain Microwave Coal Seam Imaging Sensor-Progress In Signal Processing

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    The paper, "An Electromagnetic Roof and Rib Thickness Sensor" presented at The 12th WVU International Mining Electrotechnology Conference in 1992, presented the results of roof coal thickness measurements in underground mines and rib coal thickness measurements in highwall mines. The microwave sensor described uses a unique spatial modulation scheme created by antenna motion, along with frequency domain signal processing, to solve the problem of media, target, and antenna dispersion. This paper further describes the advantages of the unique frequency domain signal processing technology chosen by the U.S. Bureau of Mines in extending previously reported one-dimensional thickness measurement technology to the generation of a full three-dimensional underground image of the underground environment. The electromagnetic signature of a media, whether it is coal or other geological material, is its permeability and permittivity and the effect on the velocity and amplitude of an electromagnetic wave as it passes through. High-quality imaging cannot occur without the identification of, and correction for, the permittivity and permeability of each layer of a multilayer geological deposit. Clutter, or any signal that can interfere with target discrimination, usually comes from objects in the field of view for which there is no design control. These are nuisance targets with possibly very high contrasts compared to the real target. The only proven tool to reduce clutter is to increase spatial, spectral, and polarization diversity. This paper will describe some techniques being used by the U.S. Bureau of Mines to increase the information content of both single-dimensional and three-dimensional imaging systems through the identification of media distortion mechanisms made possible by the use of spatial/spectral sensor technology. These techniques will permit high quality imaging in an environment where the data is corrupted by dispersion and clutter.
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