Thermal Stability Of ANFO Made With Recycled Oil
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Thermal Stability Of ANFO Made With Recycled Oil

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    Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference on Explosives and Blasting Technique, Nashville, Tennessee, February 7-10, 1999. Cleveland, OH: International Society ofExplosives Engineers, 1999 Feb; 2:263-271
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    The Pittsburgh Research Laboratory of NIOSH conducted research to determine the safe operating conditions for using recycled (used) lubricating oil from mining equipment as a partial replacement for diesel fuel to make ANFO-type blasting agents. The use of recycled oil (RO) conserves energy, reduces oil imports, and reduces mining costs. Since RO has a variable composition, there was concern that the additives/impurities it contains may cause ANFO made with RO to be unstable (as compared to regular ANFO) at high summer ambient storage temperatures. Reactivity of RO with zinc was also a concern. Thermal stability tests were conducted to help quantify and resolve these issues. ANFO mixtures (0.66 lb/300 g) were put into sample containers made of steel, stainless steel, and galvanized (zinc coated) steel pipe fittings, which were heated in isothermal ovens. The experimental parameters were temperature settings of 140° F (60° C) and 176° F (80° C), four sample container (pipe fitting) metal combinations, and nominal heating periods of one and three days. The ANFO samples contained 6% each of the following twelve different oils/oil mixtures: No. 1 was diesel fuel, Nos. 2 thru 6 were five candidate oils (2 thru 5 were used oils and 6 was a new synthetic oil), No. 7 was 5% diesel fuel + 1 % graphite, and Nos. 8 thru 12 were 3% diesel fuel + 3% each of the five candidate oils. All samples showed no reactivity when heated at 140° F (60°C). All samples (except No. 7) reacted at 176° F (80° C) in a steel pipe with galvanized caps as follows: No. I reacted most, Nos. 8-12 reacted moderately, and Nos. 2-6 reacted least. All ANFO samples were tested and found not to be cap sensitive.
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