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Simulation Of Human Motion, Muscle Forces And Lumbar Spine Stresses Due To Whole-Body-Vibration: Application Of The Dynamic Human Model Casimir For The Development Of Commercial Vehicles And Passenger Cars - Introduction: Occupant Modeling; Proceedings Of The First American Conference On Human Vibration
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    In the development of commercial vehicles as well as of passenger cars, the effects of vehicle vibrations on operating safety, health and comfort can only be predicted by numerical simulation when appropriate occupant models are available. Such models must be based on human anatomy and have dynamic properties of real humans in order to achieve realistic results. Since human dynamic behavior depend on posture and percentile, the occupant model needs to be adjustable to these parameters with respect to geometry and dynamic properties [1,2]. Dynamic Human Finite-Element-Model CASIMIR CASIMIR is a non-linear, dynamic finite-element-model of the human body. It consists of a dynamic model of the upper torso with head, neck, shoulders and arms as well as of a dynamic model of the lower extremity with pelvis and legs. The most important part is the lumbar area with dynamic non-linear models of the lumbar spine and of back and abdominal musculature. The frequency-dependent characteristics of the intervertebral discs and the effects of muscle activation and non-linear frequency-dependent muscle properties are included. In the latest stage of development, CASIMIR has been equipped with a compliant model of the body surface in the contact areas to the seat. This results in a very realistic transmission of static and vibrational forces into the human body, see fig. 1. Intense model verification and validation has been performed in all stages of model development, starting with validation of small components like intervertebral disc, ending with validation of whole-body-vibrations using measurements of the dynamic mass / mechanical impedance [4]. For an in-detail examination of stresses in the vertebral bodies and discs, a non-linear submodel of the lumbar spine with an increased number of degrees of freedom can be coupled to the whole-body-model, enabling the researcher to examine local effects of vibrations and single shocks on the lumbar materials. [ ] Since it is well known that human dynamic behavior is significantly affected by anthropometric data and posture, CASIMIR can be individualized to the anthropometric status of single individuals or to the mean values for specific percentile groups. Furthermore, posture can be adjusted to the seating conditions applicable to a specific vehicle. Posture modification capabilities include the variation of the lumbar lordosis [3].

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