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Descriptive assessment of rabies post-exposure prophylaxis procurement, distribution, monitoring, and reporting in four Asian countries: Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, and Sri Lanka, 2017–2018
  • Published Date:
    October 09 2018
  • Source:
    Vaccine.
  • Language:
    English


Public Access Version Available on: April 09, 2020 information icon
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Details:
  • Pubmed ID:
    30314908
  • Pubmed Central ID:
    PMC6702106
  • Description:
    Background:

    There are approximately 35,000 human deaths from rabies in Asia annually. Rabies can be prevented through timely post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) consisting of wound washing, rabies vaccine, and in some cases, rabies immunoglobulin (RIG). However, access to rabies PEP often remains limited to urban areas and is cost-prohibitive. There is little information on procurement, distribution, monitoring, and reporting of rabies PEP.

    Methods:

    We interviewed key informants in the public sector from various levels in Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, and Sri Lanka between March 2017 and May 2018 using a descriptive assessment tool to obtain information on procurement, distribution, monitoring, and reporting of rabies PEP. These four countries in Asia were chosen to showcase a range of rabies PEP systems. National rabies focal points were interviewed in each country and focal points helped identify additional key informants at lower levels.

    Results:

    A total of 22 key informants were interviewed at various levels (central level to health facility level) including national rabies focal points in each country. Each country has a unique system for managing rabies PEP procurement, distribution, monitoring, and reporting. There are varying levels of PEP access for those with potential rabies exposures. Rabies PEP is available in select health facilities throughout the country in Bangladesh, Bhutan, and Sri Lanka. In Cambodia, rabies PEP is limited to two urban centers. The availability of RIG in all four countries is limited. In these four countries, most aspects of the rabies PEP distribution system operate independently of systems for other vaccines. However, in Bhutan, rabies PEP and Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) vaccines share cold chain space in some locations at the lowest level. All countries have a monitoring system in place, but there is limited reporting of data, particularly to the central level.

    Conclusion:

    Systems to procure, deliver, monitor, and report on rabies PEP are variable across countries. Sharing information on practices more widely among countries can help programs to increase access to this life-saving treatment.

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