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Candida Bloodstream Infections Among Persons Who Inject Drugs — Denver Metropolitan Area, Colorado, 2017–2018
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Details:
  • Pubmed ID:
    30921302
  • Pubmed Central ID:
    PMC6448981
  • Description:
    Candidemia, a bloodstream infection caused by Candida species, is typically considered a health care-associated infection, with known risk factors including the presence of a central venous catheter, receipt of total parenteral nutrition or broad-spectrum antibiotics, recent abdominal surgery, admission to an intensive care unit, and prolonged hospitalization (1,2). Injection drug use (IDU) is not a common risk factor for candidemia; however, in the context of the ongoing opioid epidemic and corresponding IDU increases, IDU has been reported as an increasingly common condition associated with candidemia (3) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (4). Little is known about the epidemiology of candidemia among persons who inject drugs. The Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment (CDPHE) conducts population-based surveillance for candidemia in the five-county Denver metropolitan area, encompassing 2.7 million persons, through CDC's Emerging Infections Program (EIP). As part of candidemia surveillance, CDPHE collected demographic, clinical, and IDU behavior information for persons with Candida-positive blood cultures during May 2017-August 2018. Among 203 candidemia cases reported, 23 (11%) occurred in 22 patients with a history of IDU in the year preceding their candidemia episode. Ten (43%) of the 23 cases were considered community-onset infections, and four (17%) cases were considered community-onset infections with recent health care exposures. Seven (32%) of the 22 patients had disseminated candidiasis with end-organ dysfunctions; four (18%) died during their hospitalization. In-hospital IDU was reported among six (27%) patients, revealing that IDU can be a risk factor in the hospital setting as well as in the community. In addition to community interventions, opportunities to intervene during health care encounters to decrease IDU and unsafe injection practices might prevent infections, including candidemia, among persons who inject drugs.

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