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Comparative cytotoxicity of respirable surface-treated/untreated calcium carbonate rock dust particles in vitro
  • Published Date:
    October 25 2018
  • Source:
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 362:67-76
  • Language:
Filetype[PDF-1.75 MB]

  • Alternative Title:
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol
  • Description:
    Calcium carbonate rock dust (RD) is used in mining to reduce the explosivity of aerosolized coal. During the dusting procedures, potential for human exposure occurs, raising health concerns. To improve RD aerosolization, several types of anti-caking surface treatments exist. The aim of the study was to evaluate cytotoxicity of four respirable RD samples: untreated/treated limestone (UL/TL), untreated/treated marble (UM/TM), and crystalline silica (SiO|) as a positive control in A549 and THP-1 transformed human cell lines. Respirable fractions were generated and collected using FSP10 high flow-rate cyclone samplers. THP-1 cells were differentiated with phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (20 ng/ml, 48 h). Cells were exposed to seven different concentrations of RD and SiO| (0-0.2 mg/ml). RD caused a slight decrease in viability at 24 or 72 h post-exposure and were able to induce inflammatory cytokine production in A549 cells, however, with considerably less potency than SiO|. In THP-1 cells at 24 h, there was significant dose-dependent lactate dehydrogenase, inflammatory cytokine and chemokine release. Caspase-1 activity was increased in SiO|- and, on a lesser scale, in TM- exposed cells. To test if the increased toxicity of TM was uptake-related, THP-1 cells were pretreated with Cytochalasin D (CytD) or Bafilomycin A (BafA), followed by exposure to RD or SiO| for 6 h. CytD blocked the uptake and significantly decreased cytotoxicity of all particles, while BafA prevented caspase-1 activation but not cytotoxic effects of TM. Only TM was able to induce an inflammatory response in THP-1 cells, however it was much less pronounced compared to silica.

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