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Comparative Ecology of Bartonella and Brucella Infections in Wild Carnivores
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  • Pubmed ID:
    30662899
  • Pubmed Central ID:
    PMC6328487
  • Description:
    Phylogenetic sister clades | and | within the order Rhizobiales present some common biological characteristics as well as evident differences in adaptations to their mammalian reservoirs. We reviewed published data on | and | infections in wild carnivores to compare the ecology of these bacteria in relatively similar host environments. Arthropod vectors are the main mechanism for | species transmission between mammalian hosts. The role of arthropods in transmission of | remains disputed, however experimental studies and reported detection of | in arthropods indicate potential vector transmission. More commonly, transmission of | occurs via contact exposure to infected animals or the environment contaminated with their discharges. Of 26 species of carnivores tested for both | and |, 58% harbored either. Among them were bobcats, African lions, golden jackals, coyotes, wolves, foxes, striped skunks, sea otters, raccoons, and harbor seals. The most common species of | in wild carnivores was |, found in 23 species, followed by | in 12, | in ten, and | subsp. | in seven. Among | species, | was reported in over 30 terrestrial carnivore species, followed by | in seven. Marine carnivores, such as seals and sea lions, can host |. In contrast, there is no evidence of a | strain specific for marine mammals. | species are present practically in every sampled species of wild felids, but of 14 | studies of felids, only five reported | and those were limited to detection of antibodies. We found no reports of | in bears while | was detected in these animals. There is evident host-specificity of | species in wild carnivores (e.g., | in felids and | subsp. | in canids). A co-adaptation of | with terrestrial wild carnivore hosts is not as straightforward as in domestic animals. Wild carnivores often carry the same pathogens as their domesticated relatives (cats and dogs), but the risk of exposure varies widely because of differences in biology, distribution, and historical interactions.

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