HIV testing and prophylaxis to prevent mother-to-child transmission in the United States
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HIV testing and prophylaxis to prevent mother-to-child transmission in the United States

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      Reducing transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the United States requires new strategies, including emphasis on prevention of transmission by HIV-infected persons. Through ongoing attention to prevention, risky sexual and needle-sharing behaviors among persons with HIV infection can be reduced and transmission of HIV infection prevented. Medical care providers can substantially affect HIV transmission by screening their HIV-infected patients for risk behaviors; communicating prevention messages; discussing sexual and drug-use behavior; positively reinforcing changes to safer behavior; referring patients for services such as substance abuse treatment; facilitating partner notification, counseling, and testing; and identifying and treating other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). To help incorporate HIV prevention into the medical care of HIV-infected persons, CDC, the Health Resources and Services Administration, the National Institutes of Health, and the HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America developed these recommendations. The recommendations are general and apply to incorporating HIV prevention into the medical care of all HIV-infected adolescents and adults, regardless of age, sex, or race/ethnicity. They are intended for all persons who provide medical care to HIV-infected persons (e.g., physicians, nurse practitioners, nurses, physician assistants); they might also be useful to those who deliver prevention messages (e.g., case managers, social workers, health educators). The recommendations were developed by using an evidence-based approach. For each recommendation, the strength of the recommendation, the quality of available evidence supporting the recommendation, and the outcome for which the recommendation is rated are provided. The recommendations are categorized into three major components: screening for HIV transmission risk behaviors and STDs, providing brief behavioral risk-reduction interventions in the office setting and referring selected patients for additional prevention interventions and other related services, and facilitating notification and counseling of sex and needle-sharing partners of infected persons.
    • Source:
      Pediatrics. 2008; 122(5):1127-34.
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