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Special focus; surveillance for reproductive health
  • Published Date:
    August 8, 1997
Filetype[PDF - 796.58 KB]

  • Corporate Authors:
    National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (U.S.). Division of Reproductive Health ; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.) ;
  • Series:
    MMWR. CDC surveillance summaries : Morbidity and mortality weekly report. CDC surveillance summaries ; v. 46, no. SS-4
  • Document Type:
  • Description:
    Hysterectomy surveillance--United States, 1980-1993 / Lisa A. Lepine, Susan D. Hillis, Polly A. Marchbanks, Lisa M. Koonin, Brian Morrow, Burney A. Kieke, Lynne S. Wilcox, Division of Reproductive Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion -- Pregnancy-related mortality surveillance--United States, 1987-1990 / Lisa M. Koonin, Andrea P. MacKay, Cynthia J. Berg, Hani K. Atrash, Jack C. Smith, Division of Reproductive Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion -- Abortion surveillance--United States, 1993 and 1994 / Lisa M. Koonin, Jack C. Smith, Merrell Ramick, Lilo T. Strauss, Frederick W. Hopkins, Division of Reproductive Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion

    Hysterectomy surveillance--United States, 1980-1993: "PROBLEM/CONDITION: In the United States, approximately 600,000 hysterectomies are performed each year, and the procedure is the second most frequently performed major surgical procedure among reproductive-aged women. REPORTING PERIOD COVERED: 1980-1993. DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEM: This surveillance system uses data obtained from CDC's National Hospital Discharge Survey (NHDS) to describe the epidemiology of hysterectomy. The NHDS is an annual probability sample of discharges from non-Federal, short-stay hospitals in the United States. RESULTS: In the United States during 1980-1993, an estimated 8.6 million women aged > or =15 years had a hysterectomy. The overall rate of hysterectomy declined slightly from 1980 (7.1 hysterectomies per 1,000 women) to 1987 (6.6 per 1,000 women). The redesign of the NHDS in 1988 resulted in a decrease in estimated rates (i.e., the average annual rate for 1988-1993 was 5.5 per 1,000 women). Rates differed by age, with women aged 40-44 years most likely to have this procedure. Overall annual rates of hysterectomy did not differ significantly by race. The diagnosis most often associated with hysterectomy was uterine leiomyoma; during 1988-1993, this diagnosis accounted for 62% of hysterectomies among black women, 29% among white women, and 45% among women of other races. During 1988-1993, the percentage of hysterectomies performed by the vaginal route increased significantly; furthermore, an increasingly higher percentage of vaginal hysterectomies were accompanied by bilateral oophorectomy. From 1991 through 1993, laparoscopy was associated more frequently with vaginal hysterectomy than in previous years. INTERPRETATION: The rate of hysterectomy decreased slightly during the first half of the 14-year surveillance period, then leveled off during the second half. The increase in simultaneous coding of laparoscopy and vaginal hysterectomy on hospital discharge forms probably reflected the growing use of laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy. ACTIONS TAKEN: Continued surveillance for hysterectomy will enable changes in clinical practice (e.g., the use of LAVH) to be identified, and information derived from the surveillance system may assist in directing biomedical assessment priorities (e.g., to determine the reasons for race-specific differences in the prevalence of uterine leiomyoma)." - p. 1

    Pregnancy-related mortality surveillance--United States, 1987-1990: "PROBLEM/CONDITION: The Healthy People 2000: National Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Objectives specifies goals of no more than 3.3 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births overall and no more than 5.0 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births among black women; as of 1990, these goals had not been met. In addition, race-specific differences between black women and white women persist in the risk for pregnancy-related death. REPORTING PERIOD COVERED: This report summarizes surveillance data for pregnancy-related deaths in the United States for 1987-1990. DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEM: The National Pregnancy Mortality Surveillance System was initiated in 1988 by CDC in collaboration with the CDC/American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists Maternal Mortality Study Group. Health departments in the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and New York City provided CDC with copies of death certificates and available linked outcome records (i.e., birth certificates or fetal death records) of all identified pregnancy-related deaths. RESULTS: During 1987-1990, 1,459 deaths were determined to be pregnancy-related. The overall pregnancy-related mortality ratio was 9.2 deaths per 100,000 live births. The pregnancy-related mortality ratio for black women was consistently higher than for white women for every risk factor examined by race. The disparity between pregnancy-related mortality ratios for black women and white women increased from 3.4 times greater in 1987 to 4.1 times greater in 1990. Older women, particularly women aged > or =35 years, were at increased risk for pregnancy-related death. The gestational age-adjusted risk for pregnancy-related death was 7.7 times higher for women who received no prenatal care than for women who received "adequate" prenatal care. The distribution of the causes of death differed depending on the pregnancy outcome; for women who died following a live birth (i.e., 55% of the deaths), the leading causes of death were pregnancy-induced hypertension complications, pulmonary embolism, and hemorrhage. INTERPRETATION: Pregnancy-related mortality ratios for black women continued, as noted in previously published surveillance reports, to be three to four times higher than those for white women. The risk factors evaluated in this analysis confirmed the disparity in pregnancy-related mortality between white women and black women, but the reason(s) for this difference could not be determined from the available information. ACTIONS TAKEN: Continued surveillance and additional studies should be conducted to assess the magnitude of pregnancy-related mortality, to identify those differences that contribute to the continuing race-specific disparity in pregnancy-related mortality, and to provide information that policy makers can use to develop effective strategies to prevent pregnancy-related mortality for all women." - p. 17

    Abortion surveillance--United States, 1993 and 1994: "CONDITION: From 1991 through 1994, the number of legal induced abortions reported to CDC declined each year by < or =5% from the number reported for the preceding year. REPORTING PERIOD COVERED: This report summarizes and reviews information reported to CDC regarding legal induced abortions obtained in the United States during 1993 and 1994. This analysis also includes recently reported abortion-related deaths that occurred during 1991. DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEM: For each year since 1969, CDC has compiled abortion data received from 52 reporting areas: 50 states, the District of Columbia, and New York City. RESULTS: In 1993, 1,330,414 legal abortions were reported to CDC, representing a 2.1% decrease from the number reported for 1992; in 1994, 1,267,415 abortions were reported, representing a 4.7% decrease from the number for 1993. In 1993 and 1994, the abortion ratio was 334 and 321 legal induced abortions per 1,000 live births, respectively. In 1993, the abortion rate was 22 per 1,000 women aged 15-44 years; in 1994, this rate declined to 21 per 1,000 women. Women who were undergoing an abortion were more likely to be young, white, and unmarried; most were obtaining an abortion for the first time. More than half of all abortions (52%-54%) were performed at < or =8 weeks of gestation, and approximately 88% were before 13 weeks. Approximately 15%-16% of abortions were performed at < or =6 weeks of gestation, 16% were performed at 7 weeks, and 22% at 8 weeks. Younger women (i.e., women aged < or =19 years) were more likely to obtain abortions later in pregnancy than were older women. In 1991, 12 women died as a result of induced abortion: 11 of these deaths were related to legal abortion and one to illegal abortion. During 1991, the case-fatality rate of legal induced abortion was 0.8 abortion-related deaths per 100,000 legal induced abortions. INTERPRETATION: Since 1990, the number of abortions has declined each year. Since 1987, the abortion-to-live-birth ratio also has declined; in 1994, it was the lowest recorded since 1977. This decrease in the abortion ratio reflected the lower proportion of pregnant women who obtained an induced abortion. As in previous years, deaths related to legal induced abortions occurred rarely (i.e., approximately one death per 100,000 legal induced abortions). ACTIONS TAKEN: The number and characteristics of women who obtain abortions in the United States should continue to be monitored so that trends in induced abortion can be assessed, efforts to prevent unintended pregnancy can be evaluated, and the preventable causes of morbidity and mortality associated with abortions can be identified and reduced." - p. 37

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