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Special focus; surveillance for reproductive health
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    Surveillance for pregnancy and birth rates among teenagers, by state--United States, 1980 and 1990 / Alison M. Spitz, Stephanie J. Ventura, Lisa M. Koonin, Lilo T. Strauss, Alice Frye, Robert L. Heuser, Jack C. Smith, Leo Morris, Sandra Smith, Phyllis Wingo, James S. Marks -- Abortion surveillance--United States, 1990 / Lisa M. Koonin, Jack C. Smith, Merrell Ramick, Division of Reproductive Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion -- Surveillance for geographic and secular trends in congenital syphilis--United States, 1983-1991 / Ruth Ann Dunn, Linda A. Webster, Allyn K. Nakashima, Division of Sexually Transmitted Diseases/HIV Prevention, National Center for Prevention Services, Gregg C. Sylvester, Division of Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, National Center for Environmental Health -- Surveillance for ectopic pregnancy--United States, 1970-1989 / Tatiana E. Goldner, Herschel W. Lawson, Zhisen Xia, Hani K. Atrash, Division of Reproductive Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion

    Abortion surveillance--United States, 1990: "CONDITION: Since 1980, the number of legal induced abortions reported to CDC has remained fairly stable, varying each year by < or = 5%. REPORTING PERIOD COVERED: This report summarizes and reviews data received by CDC for legal induced abortions obtained in 1990. DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEM: For each year, CDC compiles abortion data received from 52 reporting areas: 50 states, New York City, and the District of Columbia. RESULTS: In 1990, 1,429,577 abortions were reported--a 2.4% increase from 1989. The abortion ratio for 1990 was 345 legal induced abortions per 1,000 live births, and the abortion rate was 24 per 1,000 women ages 15-44 years. Most women undergoing abortions were young, white, and unmarried; most had had no previous live births and were having the procedure for the first time. Approximately half of all abortions were performed before the 8th week of gestation, and 87% were before the 13th week of gestation. Younger women were more likely to obtain abortions later in pregnancy than were older women. INTERPRETATION: Since 1980, the national number (and rate) of abortions has remained relatively stable, with only small (< or = 5%) year-to-year fluctuations. However, since 1984, the national abortion ratio has declined; in 1990, the abortion ratio was the lowest recorded since 1977. Increasing rates of childbearing may account for some of this decline. ACTIONS TAKEN: The number and characteristics of women having abortions are needed from all states to furnish an accurate characterization of legal induced abortion in the United States and to assist efforts to identify and reduce preventable causes of morbidity and mortality associated with abortions." - p. 29

    Surveillance for geographic and secular trends in congenital syphilis--United States, 1983-1991: "PROBLEM/CONDITION: CDC monitors trends in the occurrence of congenital syphilis (CS) in the United States by using surveillance data sent from state and local health departments. Comparisons of data from this surveillance system with data from the Division of Sexually Transmitted Diseases/HIV Prevention and the Birth Defects Monitoring Program (BDMP) can be used to assess the potential effects of changes in case finding and reporting practices on these trends. REPORTING PERIOD COVERED: This report covers CS surveillance in the United States for the years 1983-1991. DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEM: Cases of CS among infants < 1 year of age and primary and secondary (P&S) syphilis among women are reported quarterly to CDC. The BDMP is a CDC national surveillance system that samples hospital discharge data on U.S. births. RESULTS: During the period 1983-1991, 12,151 CS cases were reported. Before 1988, regional CS incidence increased 35%-131% annually. Larger increases occurred in the Northeast (578%) in 1989 and in the South (178%), Midwest (244%), and West (777%) in 1990. Within regions, these larger increases were temporally related to increases in P&S syphilis in women and changes to a more sensitive CS case definition. INTERPRETATION: CS incidence has increased since 1983 in all regions of the United States. Increases since 1988 reflect both changes in surveillance reporting practices--the surveillance case definition for CS was changed in 1988 and further revised in 1989--and a true increase in incidence. ACTIONS TAKEN: These data indicate where CS prevention efforts need to be targeted. To facilitate reporting of CS cases, CDC has developed a) a shorter form for reporting cases of CS after 1991 and b) a software package for use by state and local health departments to enter and analyze CS data." - p. 59

    Surveillance for ectopic pregnancy--United States, 1970-1989: "PROBLEM/CONDITION: From 1970 through 1989, hospitalizations for ectopic pregnancy have increased in the United States; the number of cases has increased fivefold, from 17,800 to 88,400. REPORTING PERIOD COVERED: 1970-1989. DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEM: Reported ectopic pregnancies were estimated from data collected by CDC's National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) as part of the ongoing National Hospital Discharge Survey. Data from responding hospitals were weighted to represent national estimates. The number of deaths resulting from ectopic pregnancy was based on U.S. vital statistics collected by NCHS. Denominators for calculating ectopic pregnancy rates were the total number of reported pregnancies, which includes live births, legal induced abortions, and ectopic pregnancies. Data for live births were obtained from NCHS natality statistics and data for legal induced abortions from CDC's Division of Reproductive Health. RESULTS: From 1970 through 1989, more than one million ectopic pregnancies were estimated to have occurred among women in the United States; the rate increased by almost fourfold, from 4.5 to 16.0 ectopic pregnancies per 1,000 reported pregnancies. Although ectopic pregnancies accounted for < 2% of all reported pregnancies during this period, complications of this condition were associated with approximately 13% of all pregnancy-related deaths. During this period, the risk of death associated with ectopic pregnancy decreased by 90%: the case-fatality rate declined from 35.5 deaths per 10,000 ectopic pregnancies in 1970 to 3.8 in 1989. The risks of ectopic pregnancy and death from its complications were consistently higher for blacks and other racial/ethnic minorities than for whites throughout the period. INTERPRETATION: Although the general trend has been for the numbers and rates of ectopic pregnancy to increase over the 20-year period, the variability of the data does not permit meaningful conclusions to be made about year-to-year changes in the estimates of ectopic pregnancies, especially for the years 1988 and 1989. ACTIONS TAKEN: These findings indicate the need to characterize behaviors and risk factors that may respond to preventive interventions. Until these risks factors are better characterized, early detection and appropriate management of ectopic pregnancies will remain the most effective means of reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with this condition." - p. 73

    Surveillance for pregnancy and birth rates among teenagers, by state--United States, 1980 and 1990: "PROBLEM/CONDITION: In the United States in 1990, there were an estimated 1 million pregnancies and 521,826 births among women ages 15-19 years. Rates of teenage pregnancy and birth rates by state in 1990 exceeded those in most developed countries. An estimated 95% of teenage pregnancies are unintended (i.e., they occur sooner than desired or are not wanted at any time). REPORTING PERIOD COVERED: This report summarizes and reviews surveillance data for pregnancies, abortions, and births among women ages 15-19, 15-17, and 18-19 years reported by CDC for 1980 and 1990. DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEM: Data for births and abortions were reported to state health departments and other health agencies and sent to CDC. The data from each state included the total number of births and abortions by age and race/ethnicity. RESULTS: Data in this report indicate that pregnancy rates by state among U.S. teenagers ages 15-19 years have changed little since 1980. Moreover, many states have reported increases in birth rates that are probably related to concurrent decreases in abortion rates. Pregnancy rates range from 25 to 75 per 1,000 for 15- to 17-year-olds and from 92 to 165 per 1,000 for 18- to 19-year-olds. INTERPRETATION: States with low rates of teenage pregnancy or birth may have developed and used prevention strategies directed at the needs of both younger and older teenagers; these programs may serve as models for other states where birth rates have remained high or have increased since 1980. ACTIONS TAKEN: CDC will continue to conduct surveillance of and analyze data for pregnancies, abortions, and births among teenagers to monitor progress toward national goals and to assist in targeting program efforts for reducing teenage pregnancy." - p. 1

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