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Evaluation of exposures to styrene during ultraviolet cured-in-place pipe installation
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    "In October 2017, the Health Hazard Evaluation Program of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) received a request from the management of an ultraviolet cured-in-place pipe installer regarding styrene exposures at the worksites. The request sought to determine whether exposures were controlled using current practices and identify areas for improvement. We conducted an initial visit during February 5-6, 2018, and performed preliminary sampling at one site per day. We conducted a second visit during June 6-7, 2018, and performed additional sampling at one site per day. We monitored one installation each day. Both visits consisted of collecting personal breathing zone air samples for styrene. Both visits also consisted of area sampling for total volatile organic compounds and styrene using real-time monitors. During the second visit, we collected real-time total volatile organic compound exposures by placing monitors on employees. We collected bulk samples of cured pipe for styrene emissions testing. One personal exposure during grinding a cured pipe was above the NIOSH short-term exposure limit of 100 parts per million when the manhole ventilation blower fan was not being used to provide dilution of air from outside the manhole. No personal exposures were above the NIOSH short-term exposure limit when the manhole ventilator blower fans were used. Area sampling results for total volatile organic compound and styrene emissions at the manhole face increased when cured-in-place pipe installation activities occurred in the manhole and demonstrated a reduction in measured styrene when manhole blower ventilators were used. Styrene was emitted from the uncured and cured resin. Emissions testing of the cured liner revealed emission factors that could cause styrene air concentrations to be in the parts per million range in manholes for sewers and storm water drains during cured-in-place pipe installation. For example, during grinding of the cured pipe, the surface area available for emissions increased, and the trapped styrene was released, leading to an increase in measured styrene exposures during this task. Dilution ventilation appeared to be effective at reducing personal exposures to below the NIOSH short-term exposure limit for styrene during the two cured-in-place pipe installation sampling events reported here. We recommend continued use of the manhole ventilation blower fans. We recommend additional sampling if employees report health symptoms associated with styrene exposure, such as excessive tiredness, changes in color vision, slowed reaction time, concentration problems, balance problems, feeling drunk, hearing loss, or respiratory symptoms. We also recommend additional sampling if work site conditions change in a way that could increase employee exposures to styrene such as changes to processes, materials, or work practices." - NIOSHTIC-2

    NIOSHTIC no. 20054226

    Recommended citation for this report: NIOSH [2019]. Health hazard evaluation report: evaluation of exposures to styrene during ultraviolet cured-in-place-pipe installation. By LeBouf RF, Burns DA. Morgantown, WV: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, NIOSH HHE Report No. 2018-0009- 3334.

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