Assisted reproductive technology surveillance -- United States, 2005; Malaria surveillance -- United States, 2006
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Assisted reproductive technology surveillance -- United States, 2005; Malaria surveillance -- United States, 2006

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  • Alternative Title:
    Malaria surveillance -- United States, 2006
  • Description:
    Assisted reproductive technology surveillance -- United States, 2005: Problem/Condition: Assisted reproductive technology (ART) includes fertility treatments in which both eggs and sperm are handled in the laboratory (i.e., in vitro fertilization and related procedures). Patients who undergo ART procedures are more likely to deliver multiple-birth infants than women who conceive naturally. Multiple births are associated with increased risk for mothers and infants (e.g., pregnancy complications, premature delivery, low-birthweight infants, and long-term disability among infants). This report presents the most recent national data and state-specific results. Reporting Period Covered: 2005. Description of System: In 1996, CDC initiated data collection regarding ART procedures performed in the United States, as mandated by the Fertility Clinic Success Rate and Certification Act of 1992 (FCSRCA) (Public Law 102-493 [October 24, 1992]). Beginning with 2004, CDC has contracted with a statistical survey research organization, Westat, Inc., to obtain data from ART medical centers in the United States. Westat, Inc., maintains CDC's web-based data collection system called the National ART Surveillance System (NASS). Results: In 2005, a total of 134,260 ART procedures were reported to CDC. These procedures resulted in 38,910 live-birth deliveries and 52,041 infants. Nationwide, 73% of ART procedures used freshly fertilized embryos from the patient's eggs, 15% used thawed embryos from the patient's eggs, 8% used freshly fertilized embryos from donor eggs, and 4% used thawed embryos from donor eggs. Overall, 42% of ART transfer procedures resulted in a pregnancy, and 35% resulted in a live-birth delivery (delivery of one or more live-born infants). The highest live-birth rates were observed among ART procedures that used freshly fertilized embryos from donor eggs (52%). The highest numbers of ART procedures were performed among residents of California (18,655), New York (12,032), Illinois (9,449), New Jersey (9,325), and Massachusetts (8,571). These five states also reported the highest number of live-birth deliveries. Of 52,041 infants born through ART, 49% were born in multiple-birth deliveries. The multiple-birth risk was highest for women who underwent ART transfer procedures that used freshly fertilized embryos from either donor eggs (41%) or their own eggs (32%). Approximately 1% of U.S. infants born in 2005 were conceived through ART. Those infants accounted for 17% of multiple births nationwide. Approximately 9% of ART singletons, 57% of ART twins, and 95% of ART triplets or higher-order multiples were low birthweight. Similarly, 15% of ART singletons, 66% of ART twins, and 97% of ART triplets or higher-order multiples were born preterm. Interpretation: Whether an ART procedure resulted in a pregnancy and live-birth delivery varied according to different patient and treatment factors. ART poses a major risk for multiple births that are associated with adverse maternal and infant outcomes (e.g., preterm delivery, low birthweight, and infant mortality). This risk varied according to the patient's age, the type of ART procedure performed, the number of embryos available for transfer to the uterus, the number actually transferred, and the day of transfer (day 3 or day 5). Public Health Actions: ART-related multiple births represent a sizable proportion of all multiple births nationwide and in selected states. To minimize the adverse maternal and child health effects that are associated with multiple pregnancies, ongoing efforts to limit the number of embryos transferred in each ART procedure should be continued and strengthened. Adverse maternal and infant outcomes (e.g., low birthweight and preterm delivery) associated with ART treatment choices should be explained fully when counseling patients who are considering ART.

    Malaria surveillance --- United States, 2006: Problem/Condition: Malaria in humans is caused by intraerythrocytic protozoa of the genus Plasmodium (i.e., P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, and P. malariae). These parasites are transmitted by the bite of an infective female Anopheles species mosquito. The majority of malaria infections in the United States occur among persons who have traveled to areas with ongoing malaria transmission. In the United States, cases can occur through exposure to infected blood products, congenital transmission, or local mosquitoborne transmission. Malaria surveillance is conducted to identify episodes of local transmission and to guide prevention recommendations for travelers. Period Covered: This report summarizes cases in persons with onset of illness in 2006 and summarizes trends during previous years. Description of System: Malaria cases confirmed by blood film or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) are mandated to be reported to local and state health departments by health-care providers or laboratory staff members. Case investigations are conducted by local and state health departments, and reports are transmitted to CDC through the National Malaria Surveillance System (NMSS), National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS), and direct CDC consultations. Data from these reporting systems serve as the basis for this report. Results: CDC received reports of 1,564 cases of malaria among persons in the United States with onset of symptoms in 2006, six of which were fatal. This is an increase of 2.4% from the 1,528 cases reported for 2005. P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. malariae, and P. ovale were identified in 39.2%, 17.6%, 2.9%, and 3.0% of cases, respectively. Ten patients (0.6%) were infected by two or more species. The infecting species was unreported or undetermined in 36.6% of cases. Compared with 2005, the largest increases in cases were from Asia (16.0%). Based on estimated volume of travel, the highest estimated relative case rates of malaria among travelers occurred among those returning from West Africa. Of 602 U.S. civilians who acquired malaria abroad and for whom chemoprophylaxis information was known, 405 (67.3%) reported that they had not followed a chemoprophylactic drug regimen recommended by CDC for the area to which they had traveled. Seventeen cases were reported in pregnant women, among whom only one reported taking chemoprophylaxis precautions. Six deaths were reported; five of the persons were infected with P. falciparum and one with P. malariae. Interpretation: Despite the 2.4% increase in cases from 2005 to 2006, the numbers of malaria cases remained relatively stable during 2001--2006. No change was detected in the proportion of cases by species responsible for infection. U.S. civilians traveling to West Africa had the highest estimated relative case rates. In the majority of reported cases, U.S. civilians who acquired infection abroad had not adhered to a chemoprophylaxis regimen that was appropriate for the country in which they acquired malaria. Public Health Actions: Additional investigations were conducted of the six fatal cases that occurred in the United States. Persons traveling to a malarious area should take one of the recommended chemoprophylaxis regimens appropriate for the region of travel and use personal protection measures to prevent mosquito bites. Any person who has been to a malarious area and who subsequently has a fever or influenza-like symptoms should seek medical care immediately and report their travel history to the clinician; investigation should always include blood-film tests for malaria, with results made available immediately. Malaria infections can be fatal if not diagnosed and treated promptly. CDC recommendations concerning malaria prevention are available at or by calling the CDC Malaria Branch on weekdays (telephone: 770-488-7788; Monday--Friday, 8:00 A.M.--4:30 P.M. EST); during evenings, weekends, and holidays, call the CDC Director's Emergency Operations Center (telephone: 770-488-7100), and ask to page the person on call for the Malaria Branch. Recommendations concerning malaria treatment are available at or by calling the CDC Malaria Hotline

  • Content Notes:
    Includes bibliographical references (p. 12-13 and p. 33).
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