Determining the Prevalence of and Risk Factors for Depressive Symptoms among Adults in Nepal
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Determining the Prevalence of and Risk Factors for Depressive Symptoms among Adults in Nepal

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    • Alternative Title:
      Int J Noncommun Dis
    • Description:
      Context: Nepal is currently experiencing a rapid growth in non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Depression has previously been associated with NCDs in South Asia; however, data regarding its prevalence and risk factors is lacking in Nepal. Aims: This study aims to describe the prevalence of and risk factors for depressive symptoms in a suburban population of adults within Nepal. Setting and Design: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data collected from participants enrolled in the Dhulikhel Heart Study (DHS), a population-based, longitudinal cohort study investigating cardiovascular risk factors in Dhulikhel, a suburban town outside Kathmandu. Subjects and Methods: Baseline questionnaire data from 1,073 adults age 18 years and older included the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CESD). A score of 16 or greater on the CESD has been shown to indicate major depressive symptomatology. Statistical Analysis: Using STATA 13 we conducted Pearson’s chi-squared tests and multiple logistic regressions to examine associations between the binary CESD score and gender, age, education, marital status, body mass index (BMI), physical activity, and hypertensive status. Results: The mean CESD score in the sample was 11.7 (SD: 5.3), with 21.3% scoring 16 or greater. Age over 60 and lack of formal education were associated with increased risk of depressive symptoms. Being physically active was associated with decreased risk of depressive symptoms. Conclusions: The estimated prevalence of depression among adults in Dhulikhel was 21.3%. Significant risk factors for increased depressive symptoms included lack of formal education, age over 60, and physical inactivity.
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