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Timing of adverse events among voluntary medical male circumcision clients: Implications from routine service delivery in Zimbabwe
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Details:
  • Alternative Title:
    PLoS One
  • Description:
    Background

    Timing of routine follow-up visits after adult male circumcision (MC) differs by country and method. Most men do not attend all routine follow-up visits. This cross-sectional study aimed to further understanding of AE timing within a large-scale, routine, MC program to improve patient safety.

    Methods

    From 2013–2017, ZAZIC consortium performed 192,575 MCs in Zimbabwe; the reported adverse event (AE) rate was 0.3%. Three scheduled, routine, follow-up visits intend to identify AEs. For surgical MC, visits were days 2, 7 and 42 post-procedure. For PrePex (device-based), visits were days 7, 14 and 49. Descriptive statistics explored characteristics of those patients with AEs. For each MC method, chi-square tests were used to evaluate associations between AE timing (days from MC to AE diagnosis) and factors of interest (age, AE type, severity).

    Results

    Of 421 AEs, 290 (69%) were surgical clients: 55 (19%) AEs were ≤2 days post-MC; 169 (58%) between 3–7 days; 47 (16%) between days 8–14; and 19 (7%) were ≥15 post-MC. Among surgical clients, bleeding was most common AE on/before Day 2 while infections predominated in other follow-up periods (p<0.001). Younger surgical MC patients with AEs experienced AEs later than older clients (p<0.001). Among 131 (31%) PrePex clients with AEs, 46 (35%) were ≤2 days post-MC; 59 (45%) between 3–7 days; 16 (12%) between days 8–14; and 10 (7%) ≥15 post-MC. For PrePex clients, device displacements were more likely to occur early while late AEs were most commonly infections (p<0.001).

    Conclusion

    Almost 23% of surgical and 8% of PrePex AEs occurred after Visit 2. Later AEs were likely infections. Clinicians, clients, and caregivers should be more effectively counseled that complications may arise after initial visits. Messages emphasizing attention to wound care until complete healing could help ensure client safety. Younger boys, ages 10–14, and their caregivers would benefit from improved, targeted, post-operative counseling.

  • Pubmed ID:
    30192816
  • Pubmed Central ID:
    PMC6128519
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