Intra-host and intra-household diversity of influenza A viruses during household transmissions in the 2013 season in 2 peri-urban communities of South Africa
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Intra-host and intra-household diversity of influenza A viruses during household transmissions in the 2013 season in 2 peri-urban communities of South Africa

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  • English

  • Details:

    • Alternative Title:
      PLoS One
    • Description:
      Limited information is available on influenza virus sequence drift between transmission events. In countries with high HIV burdens, like South Africa, the direct and indirect effect of HIV on influenza sequence drift between transmission events may be of public health concern. To this end, we measured hemagglutinin sequence diversity between influenza transmission events using data and specimens from a study investigating household transmission dynamics of seasonal influenza viruses in 2 peri-urban communities in South Africa during the 2013 influenza season. Thirty index cases and 107 of 110 eligible household contacts were enrolled into the study, 47% (14/30) demonstrating intra-household laboratory-confirmed influenza transmission. In this study 35 partial hemagglutinin gene sequences were obtained by Sanger sequencing from 11 index cases (sampled at enrolment only) and 16 secondary cases (8 cases sampled at 1 and 8 cases sampled at 2 time-points). Viral sequence identities confirmed matched influenza transmission pairs within the 11 households with corresponding sequenced index and secondary cases. Phylogenetic analysis revealed 10 different influenza viral lineages in the 14 households. Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 strains were shown to be genetically distinct between the 2 communities (from distinct geographic regions), which was not observed for the influenza A(H3N2) strains. Intra-host/intra-household influenza A(H3N2) sequence drift was identified in 2 households. The first was a synonymous mutation between the index case and a household contact, and the second a non-synonymous mutation between 2 serial samples taken at days 0 and 4 post enrolment from an HIV-infected secondary case. Limited inter-household sequence diversity was observed as highlighted by sharing of the same influenza strain between different households within each community. The limited intra-household sequence drift is in line with previous studies also using Sanger sequencing, corroborating the presence of strict selective bottlenecks that limit sequence variance. We were not able to directly ascertain the effect of HIV on influenza sequence drift between transmission events.
    • Pubmed ID:
      29795677
    • Pubmed Central ID:
      PMC5967731
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