Extrapulmonary Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Disease Surveillance — Oregon, 2014–2016
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Extrapulmonary Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Disease Surveillance — Oregon, 2014–2016
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  • Alternative Title:
    MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep
  • Description:
    Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), ubiquitous in soil and water, usually infect immunocompromised persons. However, even healthy persons are susceptible to infection through percutaneous inoculation. Although 77% of NTM diseases manifest as primarily pulmonary illnesses (1), NTM also infect skin, bones, joints, the lymphatic system, and soft tissue. NTM infections can have incubation periods that exceed 5 years (2), often require prolonged treatment, and can lead to sepsis and death. Extrapulmonary NTM outbreaks have been reported in association with contaminated surgical gentian violet (3), nail salon pedicures (4), and tattoos received at tattoo parlors (5), although few surveillance data have been available for estimating the public health burden of NTM.* On January 1, 2014, the Oregon Health Authority designated extrapulmonary NTM disease a reportable condition. To characterize extrapulmonary NTM infection, estimate resources required for surveillance, and assess the usefulness of surveillance in outbreak detection and investigation, 2014-2016 extrapulmonary NTM surveillance data were reviewed, and interviews with stakeholders were conducted. During 2014-2016, 134 extrapulmonary NTM cases (11 per 1 million persons per year) were reported in Oregon. The age distribution was bimodal, with highest incidence among persons aged <10 years (20 per 1 million persons per year) and persons aged 60-69 years (18 per 1 million persons per year). The most frequently reported predisposing factors (occurring within 14-70 days of symptom onset) were soil exposure (41/98; 42%), immunocompromised condition (42/124; 34%), and surgery (32/120; 27%). Overall, 43 (33%) patients were hospitalized, 18 (15%) developed sepsis, and one (0.7%) died. Surveillance detected or helped to control two outbreaks at low cost. Jurisdictions interested in implementing extrapulmonary NTM surveillance can use the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE) standardized case definition (6) for extrapulmonary NTM reporting or investigative guidelines maintained by the Oregon Health Authority (7).
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