Iodine Status and Consumption of Key Iodine Sources in the U.S. Population with Special Attention to Reproductive Age Women
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Iodine Status and Consumption of Key Iodine Sources in the U.S. Population with Special Attention to Reproductive Age Women

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      We estimated iodine status (median urinary iodine concentration (mUIC (µg/L))) for the US population (6 years and over; | = 4613) and women of reproductive age (WRA) (15⁻44 years; | = 901). We estimated mean intake of key iodine sources by race and Hispanic origin. We present the first national estimates of mUIC for non-Hispanic Asian persons and examine the intake of soy products, a potential source of goitrogens. One-third of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) participants in 2011⁻2014 provided casual urine samples; UIC was measured in these samples. We assessed dietary intake with one 24-h recall and created food groups using the USDA’s food/beverage coding scheme. For WRA, mUIC was 110 µg/L. For both non-Hispanic white (106 µg/L) and non-Hispanic Asian (81 µg/L) WRA mUIC was significantly lower than mUIC among Hispanic WRA (133 µg/L). Non-Hispanic black WRA had a mUIC of 124 µg/L. Dairy consumption was significantly higher among non-Hispanic white (162 g) compared to non-Hispanic black WRA (113 g). Soy consumption was also higher among non-Hispanic Asian WRA (18 g compared to non-Hispanic black WRA (1 g). Differences in the consumption pattern of key sources of iodine and goitrogens may put subgroups of individuals at risk of mild iodine deficiency. Continued monitoring of iodine status and variations in consumption patterns is needed.
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