Prevalence and correlates of non-disclosure of maternal HIV status to male partners: a national survey in Kenya
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Prevalence and correlates of non-disclosure of maternal HIV status to male partners: a national survey in Kenya
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  • Alternative Title:
    BMC Public Health
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    Background Prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) programs usually test pregnant women for HIV without involving their partners. Non-disclosure of maternal HIV status to male partners may deter utilization of PMTCT interventions since partners play a pivotal role in decision-making within the home including access to and utilization of health services. Methods Mothers attending routine 6-week and 9-month infant immunizations were enrolled at 141 maternal and child health (MCH) clinics across Kenya from June–December 2013. The current analysis was restricted to mothers with known HIV status who had a current partner. Multivariate logistic regression models adjusted for marital status, relationship length and partner attendance at antenatal care (ANC) were used to determine correlates of HIV non-disclosure among HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected mothers, separately, and to evaluate the relationship of non-disclosure with uptake of PMTCT interventions. All analyses accounted for facility-level clustering, Results Overall, 2522 mothers (86% of total study population) met inclusion criteria, 420 (17%) were HIV-infected. Non-disclosure of HIV results to partners was higher among HIV-infected than HIV-uninfected women (13% versus 3% respectively, p < 0.001). HIV-uninfected mothers were more likely to not disclose their HIV status to male partners if they were unmarried (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.79, 95% CI: 1.56–9.19, p = 0.004), had low (≤KSH 5000) income (aOR = 1.85, 95% CI: 1.00–3.14, p = 0.050), experienced intimate partner violence (aOR = 3.65, 95% CI: 1.84–7.21, p < 0.001) and if their partner did not attend ANC (aOR = 4.12, 95% CI: 1.89–8.95, p < 0.001). Among HIV-infected women, non-disclosure to male partners was less likely if women had salaried employment (aOR = 0.42, 95%CI: 0.18–0.96, p = 0.039) and each increasing year of relationship length was associated with decreased likelihood of non-disclosure (aOR = 0.90, 95% CI: 0.82–0.98, p = 0.015 for each year increase). HIV-infected women who did not disclose their HIV status to partners were less likely to uptake CD4 testing (aOR = 0.32, 95% CI: 0.15–0.69, p = 0.004), to use antiretrovirals (ARVs) during labor (OR = 0.38, 95% CI 0.15–0.97, p = 0.042), or give their infants ARVs (OR = 0.08, 95% CI 0.02–0.31, p < 0.001). Conclusion HIV-infected women were less likely to disclose their status to partners than HIV-uninfected women. Non-disclosure was associated with lower use of PMTCT services. Facilitating maternal disclosure to male partners may enhance PMTCT uptake.
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