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Human papillomavirus vaccination coverage among females and males, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, United States, 2007–2016 ☆
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    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination has been routinely recommended at age 11–12 years in the United States for females since 2006 and males since 2011. Coverage can be estimated using self/parent-reported HPV vaccination collected in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for a wider age range than other national surveys. We assessed vaccination coverage in 2015–2016, temporal trends by age, and the validity of self/parent-reported vaccination status. Methods Participants aged 9–59 years completed an interview collecting demographic and vaccination information. Weighted coverage was estimated for two-year NHANES cycles by age group for 2007–2008 to 2015–2016 for females (N = 14318) and 2011–2012 to 2015–2016 for males (N = 7847). Temporal trends in coverage were assessed from 2007–2008 to 2011–2012 for females and from 2011–2012 to 2015–2016 for both sexes. Sensitivity and specificity of self/parent-reported vaccination were assessed using provider-verified vaccination records from a pilot study in 14–29 year-olds. Results In 2015–2016, ≥1 dose coverage among females was highest in 14–19 (54.7%) and 20–24 (56.0%) year-olds and lower in successively older age groups. Among males, ≥1 dose coverage was highest in 14–19 year-olds (39.5%) and lower at older ages. Coverage was similar in 9–13 year-old females and males. Between 2007–2008 and 2011–2012, there were increases among females younger than 30 years. Between 2011–2012 and 2015–2016, there were increases among female age groups including 20–39 year-olds; male coverage increased among ages 9–13, 14–19, and 20–24 years. Self/parent-reported receipt of ≥1 dose had a sensitivity and specificity of 87.0% and 83.3%. Performance was lower for 3 doses. Conclusions While overall HPV vaccination coverage remains low, it is higher in females than males, except in 9–13 year-olds. There have been increases in coverage among many age groups, but coverage has stalled in younger females. Adequate validity was demonstrated for self/parent-reported vaccination of ≥1 dose, but not 3 doses, in a pilot study.
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