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Plasma trans-fatty acid concentrations in fasting adults declined from NHANES 1999–2000 to 2009–20101–3
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  • Pubmed ID:
    28381474
  • Pubmed Central ID:
    PMC5708855
  • Description:
    Background

    The consumption of trans fatty acids (TFAs) is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, and reducing their consumption is a major public health objective. Food intake studies have provided estimates for TFA concentrations in the US population; however, there is a need for data on TFA blood concentrations in the population.

    Objective

    The objective of this study was to determine plasma TFA concentrations in a nationally representative group of fasted adults in the US population in NHANES samples from 1999–2000 and 2009–2010.

    Design

    Four major TFAs [palmitelaidic acid (C16:1n–7t), trans vaccenic acid (C18:1n–7t), elaidic acid (C18:1n–9t), and linoelaidic acid (C18:2n–6t,9t)] were measured in plasma in 1613 subjects from NHANES 1999–2000 and 2462 subjects from NHANES 2009–2010 by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Geometric means and distribution percentiles were calculated for each TFA and their sum by age, sex, and race/ethnicity (non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, Mexican American), and covariate-adjusted geometric means were computed by using a model that included these demographic and other dietary factors, as well as survey year and any significant interaction terms.

    Results

    These nationally representative data for the adult US population show that TFA concentrations were 54% lower in NHANES 2009–2010 than in NHANES 1999–2000. Covariate-adjusted geometric means for the sum of the 4 TFAs were 81.4 μmol/L (95% CI: 77.3, 85.6 μmol/L) and 37.8 μmol/L (95% CI: 36.4, 39.4 μmol/L) in NHANES 1999–2000 and 2009–2010, respectively. Even with the large decline in TFA concentrations, differences between demographic subgroups were comparable in the 2 surveys.

    Conclusion

    The results indicate an overall reduction in TFA concentrations in the US population and provide a valuable baseline to evaluate the impact of the recent regulation categorizing TFAs as food additives.

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