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Determination of the residual efficacy of carbamate and organophosphate insecticides used for indoor residual spraying for malaria control in Ethiopia
  • Published Date:
    Nov 21 2017
  • Source:
    Malar J. 16.
Filetype[PDF-1.65 MB]


Details:
  • Pubmed ID:
    29162113
  • Pubmed Central ID:
    PMC5697437
  • Description:
    Background

    Indoor residual spraying is one of the key vector control interventions for malaria control in Ethiopia. As malaria transmission is seasonal in most parts of Ethiopia, a single round of spraying can usually provide effective protection against malaria, provided the insecticide remains effective over the entire malaria transmission season. This experiment was designed to evaluate the residual efficacy of bendiocarb, pirimiphos-methyl, and two doses of propoxur on four different wall surfaces (rough mud, smooth mud, dung, and paint). Filter papers affixed to wall surfaces prior to spraying were analyzed to determine the actual concentration applied. Cone bioassays using a susceptible Anopheles arabiensis strain were done monthly to determine the time for which insecticides were effective in killing mosquitoes.

    Results

    The mean insecticide dosage of bendiocarb applied to walls was 486 mg/m2 (target 400/mg). This treatment lasted 1 month or less on rough mud, smooth mud, and dung, but 4 months on painted surfaces. Pirimiphos-methyl was applied at 1854 mg/m2 (target 1000 mg/m2), and lasted between 4 and 6 months on all wall surfaces. Propoxur with a target dose of 1000 mg/m2 was applied at 320 mg/m2, and lasted 2 months or less on all surfaces, except painted surfaces (4 months). Propoxur with a target dose of 2000 mg/m2, was applied at 638 mg/m2, and lasted 3 months on rough mud, but considerably longer (5–7 months) on the other substrates.

    Conclusions

    It would appear that the higher dose of propoxur and pirimiphos-methyl correspond best to the Ethiopian transmission season, although interactions between insecticide and the substrate should be taken into account as well. However, the insecticide quantification revealed that the dosages actually applied differed considerably from the target dosages, even though care was taken in the mixing of insecticide formulations and spraying of the walls. It is unclear whether this variability is due to initial concentrations of insecticides, poor application, or other factors. Further work is needed to ensure that target doses are correctly applied, both operationally and in insecticide evaluations.

    Electronic supplementary material

    The online version of this article (10.1186/s12936-017-2122-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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