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  • Published Date:

    Mar 10 2017

  • Source:
    Environ Res. 155:193-198.
  • Language:
Filetype[PDF-605.88 KB]

  • Alternative Title:
    Environ Res
  • Description:
    Background There have been increasing concerns over health effects of low level exposure to cadmium, especially those on bones and kidneys. Objective To explore how age-adjusted geometric means of blood cadmium in adults varied by race/Hispanic origin, sex, and smoking status among U.S. adults and the extent to which the difference in blood cadmium by race/Hispanic origin and sex may be explained by intensity of smoking, a known major source of cadmium exposure. Methods Our sample included 7,368 adults from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011-2014. With direct age adjustment, geometric means of blood cadmium and number of cigarettes smoked per day were estimated for subgroups defined by race/Hispanic origin, smoking status, and sex using interval regression, which allows mean estimation in the presence of left- and right-censoring. Results Among never and former smoking men and women, blood cadmium tended to be higher for non-Hispanic Asian adults than adults of other race/Hispanic origin. Among current smokers, who generally had higher blood cadmium than never and former smokers, non-Hispanic white, black, and Asian adults had similarly elevated blood cadmium compared to Hispanic adults. A separate analysis revealed that non-Hispanic white adults tended to have the highest smoking intensity regardless of sex, than adults of the other race/Hispanic origin groups. Conclusions The observed pattern provided evidence for smoking as a major source of cadmium exposure, yet factors other than smoking also appeared to contribute to higher blood cadmium of non-Hispanic Asian adults.
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