Summary of human Vibrio isolates reported to CDC, 2006
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      Infection with toxigenic Vibrio cholerae serogroups O1 and O139, the causative agents of cholera, has been a reportable disease in the United States for many years. In addition, CDC maintains a database of reported infections with all species ofVibrio from humans in order to obtain reliable information on illnesses associated with the range ofVibrio species. This information has been used to educate consumers about the health risks of seafood, as well as to help determine host, food, and environmental risk factors.

      The Cholera and Other Vibrio Illness Surveillance System (COVIS) was initiated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), CDC, and the Gulf Coast states (Alabama, Florida, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas) in 1988. Participating health officials collect clinical data, information about underlying illness, history of seafood consumption and exposure to seawater in the 7 days before illness, and conduct tracebacks of implicated oysters. Reporting has expanded and since 1997, many other states have also reported Vibrio isolates (Figure 1). However, only toxigenic V. cholerae O1 and O139 were nationally notifiable; thus the number of Vibrio isolates is likely greater than reported. CDC serotypes all V.parahaemolyticus isolates received from state health departments, and screens for cholera toxin production and the O1, O139, and O141 serogroups in V. cholerae isolates.

      This report summarizes human Vibrio infections during 2006 reported by states to CDC. Results are presented in two categories: V. cholerae isolates that produce cholera toxin (referred to as toxigenic Vibrio cholerae), and all other Vibrio isolates, includingthose V. cholerae isolates that do not produce cholera toxin. Results are presented separately for Gulf Coast states versus other states consistency with previous reports. Additionally, results are presented by anatomic site of isolation. It is important to note that isolation of someVibrio species from a patient with illness does not necessarily indicate causation. While many Vibrio species are well-recognized pathogens, the status of V. damsela, V.furnissii, V.metschnikovii, and V. cincinnatiensis as enteric or wound pathogens is less clear.

      In June 2006, the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists adopted a resolution to add all Vibriospecies infections (vibriosis) to the list of nationally notifiable diseases reported to the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS). Reporting of vibriosis is in addition to and distinct from reporting of choleracurrently conducted through NNDSS. The position statement, “National Reporting for non-cholera Vibrio Infections (Vibriosis),” can be found at In addition to reporting through NNDSS, CDC requests that states collect information using the standard surveillance form for COVIS available at

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