Welcome to CDC Stacks | The Economic Burden of Vision Loss and Eye Disorders among the United States Population Younger than 40 Years - 44201 | CDC Public Access
Stacks Logo
Advanced Search
Select up to three search categories and corresponding keywords using the fields to the right. Refer to the Help section for more detailed instructions.
 
 
Help
Clear All Simple Search
Advanced Search
The Economic Burden of Vision Loss and Eye Disorders among the United States Population Younger than 40 Years
Filetype[PDF - 749.99 KB]


Details:
  • Corporate Authors:
    for the Vision Cost-Effectiveness Study Group*
  • Pubmed ID:
    23631946
  • Pubmed Central ID:
    PMC5304763
  • Funding:
    CC999999/Intramural CDC HHS/United States
  • Document Type:
  • Collection(s):
  • Description:
    Objective

    To estimate the economic burden of vision loss and eye disorders in the United States population younger than 40 years in 2012.

    Design

    Econometric and statistical analysis of survey, commercial claims, and census data.

    Participants

    The United States population younger than 40 years in 2012.

    Methods

    We categorized costs based on consensus guidelines. We estimated medical costs attributable to diagnosed eye-related disorders, undiagnosed vision loss, and medical vision aids using Medical Expenditure Panel Survey and MarketScan data. The prevalence of vision impairment and blindness were estimated using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data. We estimated costs from lost productivity using Survey of Income and Program Participation. We estimated costs of informal care, low vision aids, special education, school screening, government spending, and transfer payments based on published estimates and federal budgets. We estimated quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) lost based on published utility values.

    Main Outcome Measures

    Costs and QALYs lost in 2012.

    Results

    The economic burden of vision loss and eye disorders among the United States population younger than 40 years was $27.5 billion in 2012 (95% confidence interval, $21.5–$37.2 billion), including $5.9 billion for children and $21.6 billion for adults 18 to 39 years of age. Direct costs were $14.5 billion, including $7.3 billion in medical costs for diagnosed disorders, $4.9 billion in refraction correction, $0.5 billion in medical costs for undiagnosed vision loss, and $1.8 billion in other direct costs. Indirect costs were $13 billion, primarily because of $12.2 billion in productivity losses. In addition, vision loss cost society 215 000 QALYs.

    Conclusions

    We found a substantial burden resulting from vision loss and eye disorders in the United States population younger than 40 years, a population excluded from previous studies. Monetizing quality-of-life losses at $50 000 per QALY would add $10.8 billion in additional costs, indicating a total economic burden of $38.2 billion. Relative to previously reported estimates for the population 40 years of age and older, more than one third of the total cost of vision loss and eye disorders may be incurred by persons younger than 40 years.