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Risk of malignant childhood germ cell tumors in relation to demographic, gestational, and perinatal characteristics
  • Published Date:
    Dec 23 2016
  • Source:
    Cancer Epidemiol. 46:42-49.

Public Access Version Available on: February 01, 2018 information icon
Please check back on the date listed above.
  • Pubmed ID:
  • Pubmed Central ID:
  • Funding:
    HHSN261201000140C/CA/NCI NIH HHS/United States
    R21 CA175959/CA/NCI NIH HHS/United States
    R21 ES018960/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/United States
    R03 ES021643/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/United States
    T42 OH008412/OH/NIOSH CDC HHS/United States
    HHSN261201000035I/CA/NCI NIH HHS/United States
    R21 ES019986/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/United States
    HHSN261201000034C/CA/NCI NIH HHS/United States
    U58 DP003862/DP/NCCDPHP CDC HHS/United States
  • Document Type:
  • Collection(s):
  • Description:

    Childhood germ cell tumors (GCTs) are a rare assortment of neoplasms, with mostly unknown etiology, that are believed to originate very early in life. Few studies have examined risk factors by histologic subtype, despite evidence of different risk profiles.

    Materials and Methods

    In this population-based case-control study, 451 childhood malignant GCT cases ages 0–5 years were identified from the California Cancer Registry. Differentiating between common histologic subtypes, we identified 181 yolk sac tumors, 216 teratomas, and 54 rarer subtypes. Cases were linked to their birth certificates and 271,381 controls, frequency matched by birth year, were randomly selected from California birthrolls to investigate the contributions of demographic, gestational, and pregnancy factors using unconditional logistic regression analysis.


    Compared to non-Hispanic whites, Asian/Pacific Islander children were at an increased risk for developing GCTs (odds ratio [OR]=1.94; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.47, 2.56). Among pregnancy complications and procedures, yolk sac tumors were positively associated with the presence of fetopelvic disproportion (OR=2.97; 95% CI=1.55, 5.68), while teratomas were strongly associated with polyhydramnios or oligohydramnios (OR=14.76; 95% CI=7.21, 30.19) and the presence of an ear, face, or neck anomaly at birth (OR=93.70; 95% CI=42.14, 208.82).


    Malignant yolk sac tumors and malignant teratomas exhibited distinct demographic and gestational characteristics; additionally, complications in pregnancy and labor may be brought on by specific histologic subtypes.

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