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Association between Antibiotic Use among Pregnant Women with Urinary Tract Infections in the First Trimester and Birth Defects, National Birth Defects Prevention Study 1997 to 2011
  • Published Date:
    Nov 2016
  • Source:
    Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 106(11):940-949.


Public Access Version Available on: November 01, 2017 information icon
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Details:
  • Corporate Authors:
    The National Birth Defects Prevention Study
  • Pubmed ID:
    27891788
  • Pubmed Central ID:
    PMC5225492
  • Funding:
    CC999999/Intramural CDC HHS/United States
  • Document Type:
  • Collection(s):
  • Description:
    Background

    Previous studies noted associations between birth defects and some antibiotics (e.g., nitrofurantoin, sulfonamides) but not others (e.g., penicillins). It is unclear if previous findings were due to antibiotic use, infections, or chance. To control for potential confounding by indication, we examined associations between antibiotic use and birth defects, among women reporting urinary tract infections (UTIs).

    Methods

    The National Birth Defects Prevention Study is a multi-site, population-based case-control study. Case infants/fetuses have any of over 30 major birth defects and controls are live-born infants without major birth defects. We analyzed pregnancies from 1997 to 2011 to estimate the association between maternally reported periconceptional (month before conception through the third month of pregnancy) use of nitrofurantoin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, or cephalosporins and specific birth defects, among women with periconceptional UTIs. Women with periconceptional UTIs who reported penicillin use served as the comparator.

    Results

    Periconceptional UTIs were reported by 7.8% (2029/26,068) of case and 6.7% (686/10,198) of control mothers. Most (68.2% of case, 66.6% of control mothers) also reported antibiotic use. Among 608 case and 231 control mothers reporting at least one periconceptional UTI and certain antibiotic use, compared with penicillin, nitrofurantoin use was associated with oral clefts in the offspring (adjusted odds ratio, 1.97 [95% confidence interval, 1.10–3.53]), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole use with esophageal atresia (5.31 [1.39–20.24]) and diaphragmatic hernia (5.09 [1.20–21.69]), and cephalosporin use with anorectal atresia/stenosis (5.01 [1.34–18.76]).

    Conclusion

    Periconceptional exposure to some antibiotics might increase the risk for certain birth defects. However, because individual birth defects are rare, absolute risks should drive treatment decisions.

  • Supporting Files:
    No Additional Files