Nicotine and Toxicant Exposure Among US Smokeless Tobacco Users: Results from 1999-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Data
Published Date:Dec 2015
Source:Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 24(12):1829-1837.
Pubmed Central ID:PMC5134927
Funding:CC999999/Intramural CDC HHS/United States
R13 ES017566/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/United States
It has been suggested that smokeless tobacco users have high levels of exposure to nicotine and some toxic substances as measured by biomarker concentrations, but studies with nationally representative data have been limited.
We analyzed biomarkers of tobacco exposure for 23,684 adult participants from the National Health and Nutrition and Examination Survey (NHANES) from 1999-2012. The biomarkers analyzed were serum cotinine, urinary 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL), blood lead, blood cadmium, blood mercury, urinary arsenic, and urinary N-acetyl-S-(2-cyanoethyl)-L-cysteine (CYMA). We calculated geometric mean concentrations for each biomarker by tobacco use category (exclusive smokeless tobacco use, exclusive cigarette smoking, dual cigarette and smokeless tobacco use, and non-cigarette and smokeless tobacco use) and geometric mean ratios adjusting for demographic factors.
Exclusive smokeless tobacco users had higher geometric mean concentrations of cotinine (178.9 ng/mL, 95% CI = 145.5, 220.0) and NNAL (583.0 pg/mg creatinine, 95% CI = 445.2, 763.5) than exclusive cigarette smokers, (130.6 ng/mL, 95% CI = 122.3, 139.6 and 217.6 pg/mg creatinine, 95% CI = 193.0, 245.2, respectively). Smokeless tobacco users also had higher concentrations of blood lead compared with non-tobacco users (adjusted geometric mean ratio = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.21, 1.38). Differences in concentrations of cadmium, mercury, and CYMA between smokeless tobacco users and non-tobacco users were not observed. Based on limited sample sizes, NNAL concentrations for smokeless tobacco users appear to have declined from 2007-2008 (geometric mean = 1013.7 pg/mg creatinine, 95% CI = 738.9, 1390.8) to 2011-2012 (geometric mean = 325.7 pg/mg creatinine, 95% CI = 159.6, 664.9).
Smokeless tobacco users have higher observed levels of exposure to nicotine and carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines, as measured by cotinine and NNAL biomarker concentrations, than cigarette smokers.
High levels of exposure to known harmful constituents for smokeless tobacco users is a cause of concern for individual and public health.
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