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The maternal brain and its plasticity in humans
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    This article is part of a Special Issue "Parental Care". Early mother-infant relationships play important roles in infants' optimal development. New mothers undergo neurobiological changes that support developing mother-infant relationships regardless of great individual differences in those relationships. In this article, we review the neural plasticity in human mothers' brains based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies. First, we review the neural circuits that are involved in establishing and maintaining mother-infant relationships. Second, we discuss early postpartum factors (e.g., birth and feeding methods, hormones, and parental sensitivity) that are associated with individual differences in maternal brain neuroplasticity. Third, we discuss abnormal changes in the maternal brain related to psychopathology (i.e., postpartum depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, substance abuse) and potential brain remodeling associated with interventions. Last, we highlight potentially important future research directions to better understand normative changes in the maternal brain and risks for abnormal changes that may disrupt early mother-infant relationships.

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    UL1 TR000433/TR/NCATS NIH HHS/United States
    R01 DA026437/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/United States
    R49 CE002099/CE/NCIPC CDC HHS/United States
    R01DA026437/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/United States
    R01 HD065819/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/United States
    R21 HD078797/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/United States
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