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Continued rapid increase in thyroid cancer incidence in California: trends by patient, tumor, and neighborhood characteristics
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Details:
  • Pubmed ID:
    24842625
  • Pubmed Central ID:
    PMC4071298
  • Funding:
    HHSN261201000140C/CA/NCI NIH HHS/United States
    HHSN261201000035C/CA/NCI NIH HHS/United States
    N02 PC015105/PC/NCI NIH HHS/United States
    HHSN261201000035I/CA/NCI NIH HHS/United States
    HHSN261201000034C/CA/NCI NIH HHS/United States
    U58 DP003862/DP/NCCDPHP CDC HHS/United States
    N01PC35136/CA/NCI NIH HHS/United States
  • Document Type:
  • Collection(s):
  • Description:
    Background

    Thyroid cancer incidence is increasing worldwide. Incorporating 22 years of incidence data through 2009, we extend examination of these trends among a wide array of subgroups defined by patient (age, sex, race/ethnicity, and nativity), tumor (tumor size and stage), and neighborhood (socioeconomic status and residence in ethnic enclaves) characteristics, to identify possible reasons for this increase.

    Methods

    Thyroid cancer incidence data on 10,940 men and 35,147 women were obtained from the California Cancer Registry for 1988–2009. Population data were obtained from the 1990 and 2000 US Census. Incidence rates and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated and incidence trends evaluated using Joinpoint regression to evaluate the timing and magnitude of change (annual percent change (APC) and rate ratios).

    Results

    The incidence of papillary thyroid cancer continues to increase in both men (APC=5.4, 95% CI: 4.5–6.3 for 1998–2009) and women (APC=3.8, 95% CI: 3.4–4.2 for 1998–2001 and APC=6.3, 95% CI: 5.7–6.9 for 2001–2009). Increasing incidence was observed in all subgroups examined.

    Conclusions

    While some variation in the magnitude or temporality of the increase in thyroid cancer incidence exists across subgroups, the patterns (1) suggest that changes in diagnostic technology alone do not account for the observed trends and (2) point to the importance of modifiable behavioral, lifestyle, or environmental factors in understanding this epidemic.

    Impact

    Given the dramatic and continued increase in thyroid cancer incidence rates, studies addressing the causes of these trends are critical.