Welcome to CDC Stacks | Bystander Intervention Prior to The Arrival of Emergency Medical Services: Comparing Assistance across Types of Medical Emergencies - 40331 | CDC Public Access
Stacks Logo
Advanced Search
Select up to three search categories and corresponding keywords using the fields to the right. Refer to the Help section for more detailed instructions.
 
 
Help
Clear All Simple Search
Advanced Search
Bystander Intervention Prior to The Arrival of Emergency Medical Services: Comparing Assistance across Types of Medical Emergencies
Filetype[PDF - 244.10 KB]


Details:
  • Pubmed ID:
    26807490
  • Pubmed Central ID:
    PMC4933010
  • Funding:
    CC999999/Intramural CDC HHS/United States
  • Document Type:
  • Collection(s):
  • Description:
    Objective

    To determine the situational circumstances associated with bystander interventions to render aid during a medical emergency.

    Methods

    This study examined 16.2 million Emergency Medical Service (EMS) events contained within the National Emergency Medical Services Information System. The records of patients following a 9-1-1 call for emergency medical assistance were analyzed using logistic regression to determine what factors influenced bystander interventions. The dependent variable of the model was whether or not a bystander intervened.

    Results

    EMS providers recorded bystander assistance 11% of the time. The logistic regression model correctly predicted bystander intervention occurrence 71.4% of the time. Bystanders were more likely to intervene when the patient was male (aOR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.12–1.3) and if the patient was older (progressive aOR = 1.10, 1.46 age group 20–29 through age group 60–99). Bystanders were less likely to intervene in rural areas compared to urban areas (aOR = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.58–0.59). The highest likelihood of bystander intervention occurred in a residential institution (aOR = 1.86, 95% CI = 1.85–1.86) and the lowest occurred on a street or a highway (aOR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.95–0.96). Using death as a reference group, bystanders were most likely to intervene when the patient had cardiac distress/chest pain (aOR = 11.38, 95% CI = 10.93–11.86), followed by allergic reaction (aOR = 7.63, 95% CI = 7.30–7.99), smoke inhalation (aOR = 6.65, 95% CI = 5.98–7.39), and respiration arrest/distress (aOR = 6.43, 95% CI = 6.17–6.70). A traumatic injury was the most commonly recorded known event, and it was also associated with a relatively high level of bystander intervention (aOR = 5.81, 95% CI = 5.58–6.05). The type of injury/illness that prompted the lowest likelihood of bystander assistance was Sexual Assault/Rape (aOR = 1.57, 95% CI = 1.32–1.84) followed by behavioral/psychiatric disorder (aOR = 1.64, 95% CI = 1.57–1.71).

    Conclusion

    Bystander intervention varies greatly on situational factors and the type of medical emergency. A higher risk of patient death is likely to prompt bystander action. These novel study results can lead to more effective first aid training programs.