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Patterns in Zika virus testing and infection, by report of symptoms and pregnancy status — United States, January 3–March 5, 2016
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Details:
  • Corporate Authors:
    CDC Zika Virus Response Epidemiology and Laboratory Team.
  • Pubmed ID:
    27101541
  • Series:
    MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report ; v. 65, no. 15, p. 395–399
  • Document Type:
  • Description:
    On April 15, 2016, this report was posted online as an MMWR Early Release.

    CDC recommends Zika virus testing for potentially exposed persons with signs or symptoms consistent with Zika virus disease, and recommends that health care providers offer testing to asymptomatic pregnant women within 12 weeks of exposure. During January 3–March 5, 2016, Zika virus testing was performed for 4,534 persons who traveled to or moved from areas with active Zika virus transmission; 3,335 (73.6%) were pregnant women. Among persons who received testing, 1,541 (34.0%) reported at least one Zika virus-associated sign or symptom (e.g., fever, rash, arthralgia, or conjunctivitis), 436 (9.6%) reported at least one other clinical sign or symptom only, and 2,557 (56.4%) reported no signs or symptoms. Among 1,541 persons with one or more Zika virus-associated symptoms who received testing, 182 (11.8%) had confirmed Zika virus infection. Among the 2,557 asymptomatic persons who received testing, 2,425 (94.8%) were pregnant women, seven (0.3%) of whom had confirmed Zika virus infection. Although risk for Zika virus infection might vary based on exposure-related factors (e.g., location and duration of travel), in the current setting in U.S. states, where there is no local transmission, most asymptomatic pregnant women who receive testing do not have Zika virus infection.

    What is already known about this topic? Zika virus is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus. Travel-associated cases of Zika virus disease have been reported in the United States. Zika virus infection during pregnancy has been causally linked to congenital microcephaly and has been associated with other adverse pregnancy outcomes, including pregnancy loss. On February 12, 2016, CDC recommended that health care providers offer testing for Zika virus disease to asymptomatic pregnant women with possible exposure to Zika virus.

    What is added by this report? During January 3–March 5, 2016, Zika virus testing was performed for 4,534 persons from the U.S. states and District of Columbia (DC), among whom 3,335 (73.6%) were pregnant women. Among 1,541 persons with one or more Zika-virus associated symptoms who received testing and reported symptoms, 182 (11.8%) had confirmed Zika virus infection. Only seven (0.3%) of 2,425 asymptomatic pregnant women who received testing had confirmed Zika virus infection.

    What are the implications for public health practice? Among persons from U.S. states and DC receiving testing for Zika virus, few persons had confirmed Zika virus infection. Approximately 99% of asymptomatic pregnant women who received testing did not have Zika virus infection. In the current U.S. setting, where most exposure is travel-associated, the likelihood of Zika virus infection among asymptomatic persons is low. Given the potential for adverse pregnancy and infant outcomes associated with Zika virus infection, health care providers should continue to offer Zika virus testing to asymptomatic pregnant women with potential exposure.

    Suggested citation for this article: Dasgupta S, Reagan-Steiner S, Goodenough D, et al. Patterns in Zika Virus Testing and Infection, by Report of Symptoms and Pregnancy Status — United States, January 3–March 5, 2016. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2016;65:395–399. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6515e1.

    PMID:27101541

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