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Update : Interim guidance for prevention of sexual transmission of Zika virus — United States, 2016
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Details:
  • Pubmed ID:
    27032078
  • Description:
    On March 25, 2016, this report was posted as an MMWR Early Release on the MMWR website/

    CDC issued interim guidance for the prevention of sexual transmission of Zika virus on February 5, 2016 (1). The following recommendations apply to men who have traveled to or reside in areas with active Zika virus transmission* and their female or male sex partners. These recommendations replace the previously issued recommendations and are updated to include time intervals after travel to areas with active Zika virus transmission or after Zika virus infection for taking precautions to reduce the risk for sexual transmission. This guidance defines potential sexual exposure to Zika virus as any person who has had sex (i.e., vaginal intercourse, anal intercourse, or fellatio) without a condom with a man who has traveled to or resides in an area with active Zika virus transmission. This guidance will be updated as more information becomes available.

    Zika virus can be sexually transmitted from a man to his sex partners. Zika virus infection is of particular concern during pregnancy. The first documented case of sexual transmission of Zika virus was in 2008 (2); transmission was from a man to a woman, and sexual contact occurred a few days before the man’s symptom onset. The first case of sexual transmission associated with the current outbreak was reported in early February (Dallas County Health and Human Services, unpublished data, 2016). In late February 2016, CDC reported two additional confirmed cases of sexual transmission of Zika virus from men returning from areas with active Zika virus transmission to their sex partners in the United States; these transmissions occurred in early 2016 (3). As of March 18, 2016, CDC has reported three additional cases, for a total of six confirmed cases of sexual transmission in the United States associated with this outbreak.† Another recent report described a case of sexual transmission that occurred in Italy in 2014 (4). In addition, there have been two reports of replication-competent Zika virus isolated from semen at least 2 weeks after onset of illness; blood plasma specimens collected at the same time as the semen specimens tested negative for Zika virus by reverse transcription-–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) (5,6). Semen collected from a third man with Zika virus infection had virus particles detectable by RT-PCR at 62 days after fever onset; RT-PCR of blood at that time was negative (7). Because serial semen specimens were not collected for these three cases, the duration of persistence of infectious Zika virus in semen remains unknown.

    Zika virus can be sexually transmitted from a man to his sex partners. Zika virus infection is of particular concern during pregnancy. The first documented case of sexual transmission of Zika virus was in 2008 (2); transmission was from a man to a woman, and sexual contact occurred a few days before the man’s symptom onset. The first case of sexual transmission associated with the current outbreak was reported in early February (Dallas County Health and Human Services, unpublished data, 2016). In late February 2016, CDC reported two additional confirmed cases of sexual transmission of Zika virus from men returning from areas with active Zika virus transmission to their sex partners in the United States; these transmissions occurred in early 2016 (3). As of March 18, 2016, CDC has reported three additional cases, for a total of six confirmed cases of sexual transmission in the United States associated with this outbreak.† Another recent report described a case of sexual transmission that occurred in Italy in 2014 (4). In addition, there have been two reports of replication-competent Zika virus isolated from semen at least 2 weeks after onset of illness; blood plasma specimens collected at the same time as the semen specimens tested negative for Zika virus by reverse transcription-–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) (5,6). Semen collected from a third man with Zika virus infection had virus particles detectable by RT-PCR at 62 days after fever onset; RT-PCR of blood at that time was negative (7). Because serial semen specimens were not collected for these three cases, the duration of persistence of infectious Zika virus in semen remains unknown.

    Suggested citation for this article: Oster AM, Russell K, Stryker JE, et al. Update: Interim Guidance for Prevention of Sexual Transmission of Zika Virus — United States, 2016. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2016;65:323–325. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6512e3.

    PMID: 27032078

    mm6512e3.pdf

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