Differences in Current Cigarette Smoking Between Non-Hispanic Whites and Non-Hispanic Blacks by Gender and Age Group, United States, 2001 – 2013
Published Date:Apr 2016
Source:Nicotine Tob Res. 18(Suppl 1):S41-S48.
Pubmed Central ID:PMC4809370
Funding:CC999999/Intramural CDC HHS/United States
For years, national U.S. surveys have consistently found a lower cigarette smoking prevalence among non-Hispanic (NH) black adolescents and young adults than their NH white counterpart while finding either similar or higher smoking prevalence in NH blacks among older adults. Because these surveys do not collect biomarker information to validate smoking self-reports, we also present results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), which collects cotinine (a nicotine biomarker) to determine if U.S. surveys consistently show racial differences in smoking prevalence.
We present NH black and NH white current smoking estimates in the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (2001–2013), National Youth Tobacco Survey (2004–2012), National Survey on Drug Use and Health (2002–2012), National Health Interview Survey (2001–2013), and NHANES (2001–2012).
Using cotinine by itself or with self-reports to compare smoking prevalence between NH black and NH white males aged 12 – 25 years, no difference in current smoking was found. For male adult ≥26 years, all surveys consistently found a higher smoking prevalence among NH blacks. For females aged 12 – 25 years, all surveys found a higher smoking prevalence among NH whites. While inconsistent results across surveys were found for those aged ≥26 years, cotinine results showed a higher smoking prevalence among NH black females.
Some racial differences in self-reported smoking are not confirmed when supplemented with serum cotinine to detect current cigarette smokers. Improving the measurement of current smoking is important to accurately evaluate racial smoking differences.
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