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Head injury at early ages is associated with risk of Parkinson's disease
  • Published Date:
    Dec 19 2015
  • Source:
    Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 23:57-61.


Public Access Version Available on: February 01, 2017 information icon
Please check back on the date listed above.
Details:
  • Pubmed ID:
    26725141
  • Pubmed Central ID:
    PMC4787263
  • Funding:
    P01-ES000002/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/United States
    P30 ES000002/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/United States
    R01 ES010798/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/United States
    R01-ES010798/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/United States
    R25 GM055353/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/United States
    R25 GM055353/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/United States
    T42 OH008416/OH/NIOSH CDC HHS/United States
    T42 OH008416/OH/NIOSH CDC HHS/United States
  • Document Type:
  • Collection(s):
  • Description:
    Introduction

    The literature on the effect of head injuries on the risk of PD is inconclusive. Some researchers have hypothesized that studies that have seen an effect are simply capturing injury related to pre-clinical PD. However in animal models brain inflammation, which can be initiated by head trauma, has been shown to produce PD-like effects. Furthermore, animal studies have found that early life inflammation in particular is of relevance for PD pathology.

    Methods

    We conducted an unmatched case-control study of 379 neurologist confirmed PD patients and 230 controls from the greater Boston, Massachusetts area with questionnaire data on history of head injury and other covariates. We used multivariable logistic regression to estimate adjusted odds ratios (OR) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) for PD.

    Results

    When we excluded injuries that occurred less than 10 years prior to the diagnosis of PD (in order to avoid reverse causation), we found an increased risk of PD associated with a head injury that resulted in a loss of consciousness, but it did not reach statistical significance (OR= 1.57; 95% CI= 0.89-2.80). We found a significant (p=0.04) effect of age at first head injury. For every 5 year earlier age at first head injury with loss of consciousness the OR for PD was 1.37 (95% CI: 1.01-1.86).

    Conclusion

    Our results suggest that head injury in early life increases the risk of PD.

  • Supporting Files:
    No Additional Files